# propose one potential solution

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O ll 44 .ll
Question 1
(1) Briefly explain the principal-agency problem and can you propose
one potential solution to reduce costs associated with this problem?
(10 marks)
(ii) Specify two typical types of behavioural biases when people make
financial decisions. Do you think that the behaviour of buying lottery
tickets is consistent with the theory of rational expectations? Explain
Question 2
(i) Suppose Caterpillar Inc. has 665 million shares outstanding and
each share is priced at \$74.77. The company has now \$25 billion in
debt. Assume that Caterpillar maintains a constant debt-equity ratio
in the next three years. At the end of the third year, if Caterpillar has
700 million shares outstanding and each share is priced at \$83,
how much debt will Caterpillar have? (5 marks)
(ii) Alpha plc plans to issue €100 million of bonds with a face value of
€50,000, coupon rate of 4 per cent and 10 years to maturity. The
current market interest rate on these bonds is 7 per cent. In one
year, the interest rate on the bonds will be either 8 per cent with 60
percent probability or 5 per cent with 40 percent probability.
(a) If the bonds are non-callable, what is the price of the bonds
today? (10 marks)
(b) If the bonds are callable one year from today, will their price
be greater than or less than the price you computed in (a)?