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00 /04 /2021
Student’s Name & ID
Student’s Name & ID
Student’s Name & ID
Student’s Name & ID
Student’s Name & ID
Man and Environment
Mrs. Mayha Mohammad Ali & Mrs. Sara Mahmoud
Group Work Mark
Note: This Group work accounts for 25 % of the student’s final grade.
Question 1: (7 Marks)
The following chart shows selected population data for two different countries A and B.
Crude birth rate (cbr)
Crude death rate (cdr)
Infant mortality rate
Total fertility rate
% of population under 15 years old
% of population older than 65 years
Average life expectancy at birth
(Data from Population Reference Bureau 2007. World Population Data Sheet)
Calculate the rates of natural increase (due to births and deaths, not counting immigration) for the populations of Country A and Country B. Based on these calculations and the data in the table, for each of the countries, suggest whether it is a more-developed country or a less-developed country, and explain the reasons for your answers. (2 Marks)
Describe where each of the two countries may be in terms of their stage in the demographic transition (Figure 6.14). (Textbook Chapter 6 -The Human Population, page -120). (2 Marks)
Explain how the percentage of people under 15 years of age in each country could affect its per capita and total ecological footprints. (3 Marks)
1. Natural increase for country A = birth rate – death rate = 43-18 = 25
Natural increase for country B = birth rate – death rate = 8-10 = -2
Here, negative sign shows the decrease of population growth.
According to the data analysis the more developed country is B because development of country is dependent upon the population and consumption of resource and in country B population has decrease but the country A population is increasing very fast.
2. The demographic transition defined as the development of hypothesis of population change. The five stages of demographic transition are following:
The factor could hinder is age of scientist, engineer, skilled worker insufficient financial capital large foreign debt factor are making this transition. Family planning is providing educational knowledge and clinical services by which helped people haw many children they have.
3. The age structure has major role in economics growth and population growth because in 2011 it realizes that 29% population under age 15 and 16% population has fewer than 15 was developed country. This dramatically stories are showing that development of country depends upon age structure. So, the people under 15 age each country could affect the growth of the country
Question 2: (6 Marks)
Define water footprint and virtual water. (1 Mark)
water footprint: a rough measure of the volume of water that we use directly and indirectly to keep a person or group alive and to support their lifestyles.
virtual water: water that is not directly consumed but is used to produce food and other products.
Why do many analysts view the likelihood of greatly increasing water shortages as one of the world’s most serious environmental problems? How do scientists use satellites to measure changes in water supplies? (2 Marks)
– If the second projection is correct, there are three likely results: greatly increased incidences of sickness and death from drinking contaminated water; millions of environmental refugees from arid and semiarid regions engaged in a desperate search for water, land, and food; and intense conflicts within and between countries especially in the water-short Middle East and Asia over dwindling shared water resources. This helps to explain why many analysts view the likelihood of increasing water shortages in many parts of the world as one of the world’s most serious environmental, health, and national security problems.
– Scientists use satellites to measure changes in water supplies in a variety of ways. One way is using satellites to measure the changes in the Earth’s gravitational pull. These changes provide insight into the changing ice cover, snow cover, surface water, soil moisture and ground water supplies. The satellites use microwaves and measuring of distances to detect water content.
List two ways in which human activities increase the harmful effects of flooding. What is the best way to prevent each of these human impacts? (3 Marks)
– The human activities which leads to floods are:
Destruction of forests which absorb water mainly on the hilly areas,
Evacuation of wetland and building on them lead to floods because they have the capability to absorb floodwaters.
The best way to prevent these impacts are planting more trees and conservation of forests because trees absorb the water, and they also have the capability to remove green house gases like carbon dioxide and release oxygen into the air.
Wet lands must be protected rather than using it for urbanization.
Using biofuels instead of fossil fuels will reduce global warming.
Question 3: (5 Marks, 2.5 for each)
What is the rock cycle? Explain its importance. Define ore and distinguish between a high-grade ore and a low-grade ore.
– Rock cycle: Largest and slowest of the earth’s cycles, consisting of geologic, physical, and chemical processes that form and modify rocks and soil in the earth’s crust over millions of years.
– In this process, rocks are broken down, melted, fused together into new forms by heat and pressure, cooled, and sometimes recrystallized within the earth’s mantle and crust.
The rock cycle also plays a major role in forming concentrated deposits of mineral resources. Some of these minerals, such as iron and salt, are crucial to our very life processes. In fact, without the earth’s incredibly slow rock cycle, you would not exist
– An ore: is rock that contains a large enough concentration of a particular mineral often a metal to make it profitable for mining and processing. Also can be defined as: part of a metal-yielding material that can be economically extracted from a mineral; typically containing two parts: the ore mineral, which contains the desired metal, and waste mineral material (gangue).
A high-grade ore contains a large concentration of the desired mineral.
A low-grade ore contains a smaller concentration.
Differentiate between net energy and net energy ratio and why they are important in evaluating energy resources. Indicate why some energy resources need help in the form of subsidies to compete in the marketplace, and give an example.
– Net energy: total amount of useful energy available from an energy resource or energy system over its lifetime, minus the amount of energy used (the first energy law), automatically wasted (the second energy law), and unnecessarily wasted in finding, processing, concentrating, and transporting it to users.
Net energy ratio: is the energy produced to the energy consumed to produce the energy.
The increase in net energy increases the fain in the useful energy produced from the resources.
– Some energy resources have a low net energy yield. This means that they are spending way more in making the resource available than the amount of energy it produces.
These energy resources wouldn’t be able to sustain a business, so subsidies are needed to alleviate the expenses.
An example would be the subsidies that are needed to help generate nuclear power. This is because the net energy yield of nuclear power is very low due to the need of high amounts of energy in each step of the nuclear power fuel cycle. The nuclear power is then made available to consumers at an affordable price, rather than an unreasonable price without the help of subsidies.
Question 4: (7 Marks)
Summarize the effects of diet deficiencies in vitamin A, iron, and iodine. What is the biggest contributor to hunger and malnutrition? (2 Marks)
– It is estimated that one third of all the people worldwide have diets that are deficient in vitamins and minerals, specifically iron, Vitamin A and iodine. Iron deficiency can lead to anemia which is a low red blood cell count. Red blood cells are responsible for carry oxygen throughout our bodies. Anemia causes fatigue, slows clotting and leads to infections. A severe Vitamin A deficiency can cause blindness. Iodine is needed for the proper functioning of the thyroid gland which regulates our metabolic rate. Iodine deficiency can lead to growth problems, mental retardation and the development of a goiter on the thyroid gland, which is large enough can cause deafness.
– The biggest contributor to hunger and malnutrition are overpopulation, not focus on the agricultural sector, a slowdown in the world economy.. etc
Demonstrate how making the transition to more sustainable food production such as that promoted by the growing power farm will involve applying the principles of sustainability. (2.5 Marks)
Transitioning to sustainable food production methods by Growing Power farm has been a great
example of the applications of the six principles of sustainability.
Scientific principles of sustainability:
Relying more on solar energy rather than fossil fuels and renewable energy.
Conserving and protecting topsoil from soil erosion helps sustain chemical cycles.
Sustaining biodiversity by relying on organic methods practiced by local farmers. Biodiversity
can also be sustained through pest control and the use of environment-friendly alternatives to pesticides.
Social principles of sustainability:
Control of the growing human population and food waste.
The government helping by eliminating subsidies to farmers and fisheries.
Find ways to include environmental and health costs of food production in the prices of food.
What is air pollution? Briefly describe four natural factors that help to reduce outdoor air pollution and four natural factors that help to worsen it. (2.5 Marks)
– Air pollution: One or more chemicals in high enough concentrations in the air to harm humans, other animals, vegetation, or materials. Excess heat is also considered a form of air pollution. Such chemicals or physical conditions are called air pollutants.
– The natural factors that reduce outdoor air pollution are following-
1. Particles heavier than air are settling out as a result of earth’s gravitational force.
2. The rain and snow partially cleanup the pollutants.
3. The salty sea spray from oceans washed out many pollutants from air, which flow from the land over the oceans.
4. Some pollutants are removed by chemical reactions as the droplets of sulfuric acids fallout of the atmosphere as acid rain. These droplets of sulfuric acids are formed by the reaction of sulfur dioxide, oxygen and water vapors.
– And the natural factors that increase outdoor pollution are as following-
1. Formation of buildings in urban area that slow down wind speed and reduce the removal of
2. The hills and valley reduces the flow of air in valley that allows building up the pollutant level at
3. The high temperature promotes the formation of photochemical smog.
4. Grasshopper effect that explain why polar bear and native of arctic area have high level of
toxic pollutant in their bodies.
Group assessments instructions:
Answer all questions.
You should work in group of three to five students.
Write all group members full Names and student ID Numbers on the Cover Page and the answer sheet.
Only the group leader should make the paper upload.
Type your answers in the answer part of the paper. Do not use red color.
Save your paper in MS Word.docx or MS Word.doc format and upload it to the Moodle system before the deadline for submission.
The group leader should use his/her name + student ID as file name.
You must show all the work steps to qualify for full mark. Partial credit may be awarded.
Your paper is composed of 8 pages including the cover page.
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