global increase in the prevalence of obesity

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Essay assessment brief and instructions
1250 words
Background: There has been a steady global increase in the prevalence of obesity. While the cause of obesity is multi-faceted, diets are amongst the most commonly prescribed treatments for obesity.
Essay Question: Are diets an effective treatment option for obesity? In your essay, state your position (i.e., whether you agree or disagree with this question) and present a critical discussion of the research evidence that supports your position. In your essay, you should present at least three different factors that may be contribute to the success or failure (depending on your position) of dieting to treat obesity. 
Important information and things to include in your essay
Broadly speaking, all diets work the same way (they reduce energy intake). Some of the references here focus on the effect of low fat diets specifically – these are the most commonly studied. When citing these studies in your essay, it is important to specify the relevant details, which amongst other features, may include the type of diet employed by the researcher(s). However, the focus of the essay should be on the efficacy of diets more generally (as opposed to comparing and contrasting different types of diets).
Some of the starter references provided are review articles – which provide an overview of the body of literature. They are helpful in orienting you to the topic area. However, you should read the original article and not rely on another researcher’s interpretation if you wish to cite these papers in your own essay. 
There are other treatment options for obesity, including bariatric surgery and diet pills. However, the focus of this essay should be on dieting behaviour only, that is, the modification of food intake in some way.
Provide definitions of key theories 
Critically discuss at least three different pieces of evidence that support your position. The three pieces of evidence must come from research findings (not your personal beliefs and/or experiences) so be sure to cite relevant studies.
It is not enough to simply cite a study that supports your position; you must critically discuss a study’s findings, lists its methodological strengths, weaknesses, and/or limitations, for example. 
An Electronic copy only of the Essay should be submitted via Turnitin software. A hardcopy is not required. Most file types are accepted, but not .pages.
It is department policy that assignments are set in terms of a specified word limit and specified format which are as follows:
1250 words maximum (Please include your Word Count on the title page of the Essay)
Double-spaced lines
Correct length essay title and running head
Use size 12 Times New Roman font (or other accepted fonts, see manual for list)
Margin of 1 inch (2.54 cm) at the top, bottom, left, and right of every page
The word limit includes in-text referencing but does not include the reference list at the end, nor the title page.
Penalties for breaching word limit: 5% (i.e., 1.5 ) mark deduction for every 100 words over the limit.
Penalties for late submissions: 5% (i.e., 1.5) mark deduction for every day after the due date.
The Week 3 and 4 tutorials are dedicated to how to write in psychology, be sure you have completed these tutorials which also includes an exercise for you to mark an essay using the rubric below.
Specifically addressed the topic and required elements of the essay question
Developed a robust, theoretically solid and evidence based argument
Accurate presentation of literature demonstrating good knowledge of the research area and perspectives
Thoughtful, insightful, specific, and cogent conclusion on the question/topic
Overall structure and format of the essay – did each section contain the required elements?
Overall style, presentation, language, and grammar
Citations and references list of sources used, formatted in APA style
The starter references are available for download via the Leganto link. 
Note: the starter references are a great place to start researching the area. Whether or not you chose to cite them is up to you.
Austin, J .L., Smith, J .E., Gianini, L., and Campos-Melady, M. (2013). Attitudinal familism predicts weight management adherence in Mexican–American women. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 36, 259–269.
Byrne, S. M., Cooper, Z., and Fairburn, C. G. (2004. Psychological predictors of weight regain in obesity. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 42, 1341–1356. https://doi:10.1016/j.brat.2003.09.004
Drewnowski, A., and Specter, S. E. (2004). Poverty and obesity: the role of energy density and energy costs, The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 79(1), 6–16.
Lemstra, M., and Rogers, M. (2015). The importance of community consultation and social support in adhering to an obesity reduction program: results from the Healthy Weights Initiative. Patient Prefer Adherence, 9,1473-1480.
Serour, M., Alqhenaei, H, Al-Saqabi, S., Mustafa, R-A., and Ben-Nakhi, A. (2007). Cultural factors and patients’ adherence to lifestyle measures. British Journal of General Practice, 57 (537), 291-295.
Siu, J., Giskes, K. and Turrel., G. (2011). Socio-economic differences in weight-control behaviours and barriers to weight control. Public Health Nutrition, 14(10), 1768–1778. https:// doi:10.1017/S1368980011000644
Sumithran, P, Prendergast, L. A., Delbridge, E. et al….(2011). Long-term persistence of hormonal adaptations to weight loss. The New England Journal of Medicine, 365, 1597-1604.Vogels, N. and Westerterp-Plantenga, M. S. (2007). Successful Long-term Weight Maintenance: A 2-year Follow-up. Obesity, 15(5), 1258-1266.
General Tips and Advice
Do not use direct quotes!
Paraphrase, do not copy a passage of text and change a few words – Turnitin will pick up on this and contribute to your score on the originality report.
Reading scientific journal articles can be challenging to get used to, you might have to read one paper a couple times to understand it when just starting out in psychology (but stick with it, it will get easier with practice). 
Introductory paragraphs should state the structure of the essay (i.e., what each section covers) and the position taken by the author with respect to the essay question.
Each paragraph should clearly address the essay question – the opening sentence of a paragraph usually reflects what will be addressed in the paragraph and the final sentence in a paragraph is usually a summation of the paragraph and also demonstrates how this particular paragraph relates to the essay question/s.
Essays should briefly and concisely define any key terms you use
Be sure to clearly state your position and present published studies which clearly demonstrate how the research findings support your position.
It can also be powerful to present published studies that DO NOT support the position you take. However, such counter-evidence should be challenged by critiquing the study (if possible) so as to diminish the veracity of the study’s results. For example, if all the studies you cite to support your position have been conducted with females but the one study that doesn’t support your position was conducted with males, then you could argue that the opposing findings are due to sample differences and therefore do not compromise your arguments and position.
Consider whether the ecological validity of each study you cite compromises or bolsters your arguments. For example, a study conducted inside the lab where participants answered questions about how they predict they would react in certain situations has less ecological validity than a study which records a participant’s behaviour in real-world settings without their awareness.
Conclusions should recap the aim of the essay, the position taken and a very brief overview of the key findings used to support the position take. A concluding sentence that highlights any caveats or limitations of the findings presented or offers avenues of future research, are good ways to finish an essay.
Reference your arguments accurately – if an idea is not your own you need to acknowledge this and provide and accurate citation. If an idea is your own you need to provide evidence from the literature that supports it.
To write a good essay you will need to do your own research and find articles relating to your particular essay argument, and extend beyond the starter references.
There is no set minimum of maximum number of references you need to cite in your essay.
Finally, thoroughly read over your essay and fix all typos and poorly worded sentences before submitting!

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