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Fire risks in the transportation of the flammable materials
Fire risks involved in the transportation of the flammable materials
Aims and Objectives
A Brief Literature Review
Element of Originality
The proposed programme of Work
Facilities, Equipment and Permissions / Authorisations
Flammable materials are the materials that catch fire quickly when it comes in contact with the high temperature or with other materials it can be doing chemical reaction and cause a fire. There are several fire risks in the transportation of flammable materials. The probability of the risk linked with converting the risk into hazard depends on the conditions in the atmosphere. If the safety Data Sheet SDS is adopted then, the risk of fire associated with the transportation of the flammable materials can be reduced to a great extent. These risks can cost the life of many persons and can cause massive losses to the assets and properties. Risk assessment of the transportation of the flammable materials will help to find the various risks of the fire associated with these materials, and it will facilitate in finding ways to prevent these risks. The prevention measures cannot be adopted until the risks are not assessed…..
Aims and Objectives:
The research aims to assess the fire risks that are there in the transportation of the flammable materials. The objective of the research is to:
Identify the various fire risks in the transportation of the flammable material
To determine the factors that arise the vulnerability to the fire risks while transportation of the flammable materials
To find ways to reduce the fire risks linked with the transportation of the flammable materials.
A Brief Literature Review:
As soon as the flammable material comes in contact with the ignition source, it gets ignited. If some persons or the assets are in contact with flammable materials while there is an explosion then, they can suffer severe consequences of it such as death, an eruption of the eardrums, an eruption of the blood vessels, severe burns, inhalation of the toxic gases. Dangerous materials can be classified into nine classes, which include:
Flammable solids can be further of three types. One is that which catches fire by self-reacting through the friction. Besides, the second type is one that catches fire in normal conditions. Also, the third type is the one that catches fire in the presence of the water (Chesterfield, 2020).
There is a risk of the spillage of the flammable materials while they are being transported, and this spillage may cause fire quickly after coming in contact with the igniting source. The spillage may occur due to improper packaging of the goods. The spillage may also occur when the vehicle carrying the flammable material is left unattended for a long time. There are 9 classes of dangerous goods, and the flammable materials fall in one of the classes of dangerous goods. The flammable material may also ignite when it comes in contact with the various other matter such as air, humidity, water, chemical substances. The explosion caused by flammable liquids can cause considerable risk to the environment (“TRANSPORT AND STORAGE – International occupational safety & health information centre”, 2020).
Saat et al. proposed the model to estimate the risk cost of the transportation of the different flammable materials (Saat et al., 2014). The route which is being followed while the transportation of the flammable material plays a vital role in minimizing eth vulnerability of the risks linked with the transportation of the flammable material. Chakrabarti and the Parikh evaluated the various routes for the transportation of hazardous materials (Chakrabarti et al., 2013).
Ogle et al. state that the emergency response for the dangerous incidents in the transportation of hazardous goods via rail involves the many technical challenges in designing the railway transportation system (Ogle et al. 2005.). He proposed a transport risk analysis tool to assess the various risks involved in the transportation of the goods via roads and the railway medium. The tool can find the risks associated with these transportation systems. The risks related to the transportation of the flammable materials are focused more on his article. Huang proposed the GIS-based route planning system for the transportation of hazardous materials. The geographical information system is capable of quantifying the factors present in a network (Huang B.).
Glickman et al. assessed the effect of the rerouting of the railroad shipment of the hazardous material on the overall cost and vulnerability to the risks (Glickman TS, Erkut E, Zschocke MS). He used the network link risk assessment method for the assessment of the impact of the cost and the risk while rerouting of the various shipments. Ronza et al. explored the explosion probabilities associated with flammable spills with various transport accident databases (Ronza et al.). He surveyed the various databases of transportation accidents.
Zhang and Zhao assessed the various risks associated with the transportation of dangerous chemicals (Zhang J, Zhao L). He conducted various simulation experiments to analyze the risks. Godoy et al. proposed a system for the risk assessment of the hazardous material, and this system was able to calculate the safe distances for transportation (Godoy, S.M., Santa Cruz, A.S., and Scenna, N.J., 2007).
The element of Originality:
The research will be original as the Work will help find the fire risks linked with the transportation of the flammable materials. The research will assess the fire conditions that give rise to fire explosion in the transportation of the flammable materials. The research will use the reports and study of the various case studies that happened in the past to assess the causes of the fire incidents. Also, it might be useful in finding the risks that are associated with the transportation of flammable materials. Future researchers can analyze the various incidents of the past for conducting further research on the topic. The research can be used by the fire engineering department to see the various risks associated with the transportation of the flammable material. With the help of the found risks, the techniques can be invented to minimize the risks associated with the transportation of the flammable material. The factors which give rise to the more risks of the ignition of the flammable materials can be avoided. As soon as the flammable material comes in contact with the ignition source, it gets ignited if some persons or the assets are in contact with flammable materials. While there is an explosion then, they can suffer severe consequences of it such as death, an eruption of the eardrums, eruption of the blood vessels, severe burns, inhalation of the toxic gases.
Proposed programmed of Work:
As soon as the flammable material comes in contact with the ignition source, it gets ignited if some persons or the assets are in contact with flammable materials. While there is an explosion then, they can suffer severe consequences of it such as death, an eruption of the eardrums, eruption of the blood vessels, severe burns, inhalation of the toxic gases.
The research will use the case study method and the literature review to assess the various risks associated with the transportation of flammable materials. The database of the previous accidents held in the past will be assessed while conducting the research. The database of the past will help to find the various causes that cause the incident of the fire during transportation of the flammable material.
Dangerous materials can be classified into nine classes which include:
The probability of the risk associated with the conversion of the risk into hazard depends on the conditions in the atmosphere. If the safety measures are adopted then, the risk of fire associated with the transportation of the flammable materials can be reduced to a great extent. The route which is being adopted for the transportation of the materials also affects the probability of the accident that can occur during transportation of the flammable material. The research will use the SPSS software to analyze the various factors which affect the vulnerability of the risks while transportation of the flammable materials. The qualitative method of the research will be adopted in which the case studies of the past incidents and the literature review of the researches that are being conducted in the past in the context of the transportation of the dangerous goods through the various modes of the transport such as road, rail, and ships.
To create a framework of the conduct of the
research and to understand the problem
definition and significance of the research
To collect the various data and information
related to research
To conduct the literature review
To organize the collected data
To analyze the data that is collected and
organized with the help of the software
To write the report on the conducted
Submission of the drafted report
Prepare the presentation of the report
Presentation of the report with the findings
of the research
Facilities, Equipment, and Permissions / Authorisations:
There are several facilities and equipment required for conducting the research. The research will require various databases of past incidents. The case studies of the incidents that happened in the past will be used for the research. The software such as SDS will also be required for the analysis of the data. The findings of the past researches in the field of transportation of the flammable materials and dangerous goods will be used as the base to analyze the various factors that affect the vulnerability of the risks associated with the past…..
Pipeline transportation is the system transportation of liquid or gas through the pipes from tank sores to destination. Flammable Materials transportation is issue of safety, and it is important to quickly response by the emergency team to control any fire accord in any flammable hazard. There are many codes and standers of transportation of flammable emergency like NFPA 471 and ERG to describe the quantities approach to demine the emergency response rank for the flammable accident. Most of flammable material transported through road or by pipeline, due to the increasing of flammable shipment volumes, high road accident rates and lake of safety management level. Usually resulted in high injures and environment damage.
The scenarios of the incident transporting flammable materials by pipeline or by road it is associated with the quantity and type of the flammable to given the way to deal with pipe line emergency. Usually in case of ignition of flammable liquids for immediate and delayed ignitions, for both the outcome is a fire with potential heat effects. Ignition for flammable materials will result jet fire with vapor cloud explosion.
According to ERG and NFPA 471, the controlling the incident location by control zones of area are divided and established based on criticality and risk level at the flammable material incident. In all flammable material used the terms hot, warm, and cold to describe these zones. The relationship between these zones at the incident area is shown in Fig.1.
The Three operational Zones:
The exclusion zone (or hot zone) is the area with actual or potential contamination and the highest potential for exposure to hazardous substances.
The contamination reduction zone (or warm zone) is the transition area between the exclusion and support zones. This area is where responders enter and exit the exclusion zone and where decontamination activities take place.
The support zone (or cold zone) is the area of the site that is free from contamination and that may be safely used as a planning and staging area.
Figure 1: Operational Zones
Objective and Aim:
In this paper, according to fire risk assessment of transporting flammable and explosive hazmat by road or by pipe line was analysed and identified on the distinguishing flammable leakage states and the methods of deal with accident
ALOHA is a computer application is designed for use during emergency accident for chemical spills or any incidents involve to chemical emergency. This application added to help the emergency response professionals to deal with chemical hazards, thermal radiation from spills or fires effects.
ALOHA is only limited to hazards associated with chemical vapours. Also have property data chemical to assess the rate at chemical from containment. It is uses graphical interface for data entry and display of results. Exposures to chemical, thermal radiation, overpressure where flammable gases present by graphically and summary.
Location of the incident location:
In this research will shoes the location in Mukhaizna oil field with two sicarios. The first scenario is crud oil on large leak at export pipeline to Muscat. The second scenario is on gas line located in 9E on fire and gas leak. The weather in Mukhaizna will change according to the seasons. The temperatures are high in the summer, especially in the day, as it reaches 50 degrees Celsius.
Mukhaizna oil field operated by Occidental Oman has implemented drilling and development to product the heavy crude oil by using steam flood projection.
Emergency Response Plan:
Emergency Response Plan should be applicable for all emergency preparation and responses to incidents arising on the field. Emergency Response Plan covers the operational and incident management aspects of field. It provides personnel of the participating organizations with information on the roles of, and initial response by, the emergency service and support organizations to all categories of emergencies which may occur on the concessions operated by Occidental Oman.
The ERP details the roles, responsibilities and actions of participating services in response to defined emergencies. All participating personnel and organizations should be familiar with their roles and comply with the provisions of the emergency response plan in the conduct of their assigned duties, if an emergency occurs at any of the Occidental Oman.
crude oil leak from export line:
burning gas pipeline gas leak:
First scenario burning gas from 7 to 12 knots wind speed:
Test summary in 7 knots
Test summary in 8 knots
Test summary in 9 knots
Test summary in 10 knots
Test summary in 11 knots
Test summary in 12 knots
Second scenario burning gas with temperature from 20 C to 50 C:
Third scenario gas leak with temperature 45 C and 10 knots wind speed:
Flammable materials are the materials that catch fire quickly from the igniting sources. There are 9 classes of dangerous goods, and the flammable materials fall in one of the classes of dangerous goods. There are various risks associated with the transportation of flammable materials. The report outlines the plan for the research in the field and provides the literature review of the past researches conducted in this field…..
Androutsopoulos KN, Zografos KG. “Solving the Bicriterion Routing and Scheduling Problem for Hazardous Materials Distribution”. Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, 18(5),713-726, 2010
Chakrabarti, U.K. and Parikh, J.K., 2013. Risk-based route evaluation against country-specific criteria of risk tolerability for hazmat transportation through Indian State Highways. Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries, 26(4), pp.723-736.
Dadkar Y, Jones D, Nozick L. “Identifying Geographically Diverse Routes for the Transportation of Hazardous Materials”. Transportation Research Part E, Logistics and Transportation Review, 44(3), 333-349, 2008.
Fabiano, B., Currò, F., Reverberi, A.P. and Pastorino, R., 2005. Dangerous good transportation by road: from risk analysis to emergency planning. Journal of Loss Prevention in the process industries, 18(4-6), pp.403-413.
Gheorghe, A.V., Birchmeier, J., Vamanu, D., Papazoglou, I. and Kröger, W., 2005. Comprehensive risk assessment for rail transportation of dangerous goods: a validated platform for decision support. Reliability Engineering & System Safety, 88(3), pp.247-272.
Glickman TS, Erkut E, Zschocke MS. “The Cost and Risk Impacts of Rerouting Railroad Shipments of Hazardous Materials”. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 39(5), 1015-1025, 2007
Ghazinoory S, Kheirkhah AS. “Transportation of Hazardous Materials in Iran: A Strategic Approach for Decreasing Accidents”. Transport, 23(2), 104-111, 200
Godoy, S.M., Santa Cruz, A.S. and Scenna, N.J., 2007. STRRAP system—A software for hazardous materials risk assessment and safe distances calculation. Reliability Engineering & System Safety, 92(7), pp.847-857.
Huang B. “GIS-Based Route Planning for Hazardous Material Transportation”.
Journal of Environmental Informatics, 8(1), 49-57, 2006.
Ogle, R.A., Morrison, D.R. and Viz, M.J., 2005. Emergency response to a noncollision hazmat release from a railcar. Process safety progress, 24(2), pp.81-85.
Ronza A, V´ılchez JA, Casal J. “Using Transportation Accident Databases to Investigate Ignition and Explosion Probabilities of Flammable Spills”. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 146(1-2), 106-123, 2007.
Verter V, Kara BY. “A Path-Based Approach for Hazmat Transport Network Design”.
Management Science, 54(1), 29-40, 2008.
Saat, M.R., Werth, C.J., Schaeffer, D., Yoon, H. and Barkan, C.P., 2014. Environmental risk analysis of hazardous material rail transportation. Journal of hazardous materials, 264, pp.560-569.
Zhang J, Zhao L. “Risk Analysis of Dangerous Chemicals Transportation”. Systems Engineering-Theory & Practice, 27(12), 117-122, 2007
Zografos KG, Androutsopoulos KN. “A Decision Support System for Integrated Hazardous Materials Routing and Emergency Response Decisions”. Transportation Research
Part C: Emerging Technologies, 16(6), 684-703, 2008.
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