Enterprise ArchitectureAssignment

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Enterprise ArchitectureAssignment Part A
Assignment Coversheet
Description: This assignment will require students to create an enterprise architecture
describing a service delivery business and IT systems, based on a background of an
Australian federal government agency responsible for the delivery social welfare support for
citizens, i.e. the Department of Human Services1.
The assignment is worth 35%, as individual-based activity.
The assignment will require students to apply modelling techniques taught through the
unit’s business and enterprise architecture lectures:
● Business architecture in developing a characterisation of what an organisation does,
through business capability models, and high-level process value streams to further
detail business capabilities (lectures 2 and 3);
● Enterprise layered architecture, which translates business capabilities and value
streams into more detailed scenarios which are modelled as ArchiMate models
(lectures 4 and 5).
Scoping of Tasks & marks:
(i) Business architecture: Marks: 14/35
The business architecture component will involve reading and analysing the
assignment brief (see below) and developing a multi-level business capability and
related value streams.
Students will be given the overall business capability map and asked to complete the
one of the business capabilities.
The capability will need a graphical model and textual description describing each
capability as described as part of it.
All assumptions made will be required to be briefly described.
(ii) Enterprise architecture Marks: 21/35
The enterprise architecture component will involve reading and analysing the
assignment brief (see below) and developing a layered ArchiMate model in terms of
the business and IT application layers only.
The IT infrastructure layer (i.e. hardware and middleware platforms) is NOT
required.
1 This case study has been adapted from general information about the Department of Human Services and its
service delivery processes. It reflects an ‘authentic assessment’ for the IAB401 assignment. The information
presented in this document does not strictly reflect actual business details and IT systems undertaken through
the department, for reasons of confidentiality, currency and real-world complexity.
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The model should be described in terms of a scenario-style explanation.
The ArchiMate model should capture key aspects of the business and IT service
delivery systems: all key business roles and the business actors that correspond to
them, business services, business channels, business collaborations between roles,
business processes, software application services, software applications and
software application components. Any key business information used in the business
processes should also be modelled.
All relationships between modelled elements should be provided. A key highlight of
the model should be the alignment between modelling elements in business and IT
layers, so that it is clear which parts of the business use specific IT applications.
All assumptions made will be required to be briefly described.
Assessment: 1
Relates to learning outcomes: 2, 3, 4
Weight: 35%
Group or Individual: Individual
Submitted material: An electronic document with the graphical model and supportive
textual explanations, as described in tasks & marks (see above).
Where to submit: You need to submit your documents through a link that will be made
available on Blackboard, assessment tab. The link will be available few days before the
assignment’s due date.
Submission deadline: Friday 10 September, 23:59.
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Enterprise ArchitectureAssignment Part A
Assignment Brief: Department of Human Services
Social Welfare Support in Australia
1. Overview: Social welfare support through the Department of Human
Services
Governments worldwide provide social welfare, by way of payments and services, to support
individuals, families and other groups, for particular circumstances, which limit their ability to
support themselves. Examples of social welfare support include unemployment benefits,
study assistance, rental assistance, disability insurance, and childcare support.
Customer requests need to be carefully assessed to get payments and services, depending on
particular conditions and what is being requested, e.g. how much income they earn, the
number of dependents they support (e.g. spouse and children), and their state of health.
1.1 About DHS
In Australia, social welfare services are available for citizens through the federal government’s
Department of Human Services (hereafter referred to as ‘the department’), under the Social
Security Act 1999, Social Security Admin Act 1999 and New Tax System Family Administration
Act 1999, passed through the federal parliament.
The department consists of a number of different agencies, including Centrelink, Medicare
and Child Support, responsible for different social welfare support areas. The services
provided by the department from its agencies include:
● Payments (e.g. Youth Allowance providing financial support for those under 24,
Austudy for study support, and Newstart providing financial support for those out of
work and over 24)
● Concessions (e.g. discounts for travel and groceries)
● Other forms of services (e.g. health support).
The responsibility of providing services means that the department undertakes the design,
development, delivery and usage monitoring of them.
1.2 Overview of DHS’s Service Delivery
Having services that can be easily comprehended by customers (i.e. what services are
available, who can apply, what are the rules for accessing them, how to apply etc.) is
important. This is a major factor in improving the efficiency of service delivery, as there are
often uncertainties on the part of customers in relation to services which requires too much
support from customer-facing staff. Currently, there is an extremely high volume of customer
interactions and processing steps for services involved, as indicated by the following:
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● Around 720 million digital and online transactions a year (i.e. payments made to
customers)
● Around 21 million visits from customers at its 350 service centres per year
● Around 169 billion dollars in payments to customer and providers
● Around 56 million phone calls per year.
Customers can access services via a range of the department’s online (e.g. web site, mobile
applications), postal and staff-assisted channels, as well as through delivery partners. The
department’s web site provides full details of all the online services that are available. An
image of the main page of the web site is provided in Figure 1.
The department’s services may also be accessed online through the federal government’s
myGov service centres and web site. myGov provides ‘one-stop-shop’ access to different
government agency services including those of the department.
Figure 1: Department of Human Services online site
The department also utilises a number of external agencies, or Delivery Partners, to support
it in certain aspects of delivery. The delivery partners assist customers in the circumstances
that customers are in, helping customers to address these. An example of delivery partners
are those agencies concerned with jobs (i.e. Job Active Providers) and assisting customers in
looking for work and getting jobs. In this case, customers who are unemployed seek
assistance through the department for unemployment benefits (e.g. through Newstart
Allowance those who are over 22 years old and under pension age of 65-67 years old) and
utilise a ‘jobactive organisation’ as a delivery partner to find work and report on progress in
terms of job seeking or any required training as part of the agreement to get unemployment
benefits (called mutual obligation). Customer may also trigger claims for services through
delivery partners, which the partners forward to the department.
The department also interacts with other Customer Stakeholders to obtain information
about customers in relation to verifying the identity of customers and their circumstances in
order to make decisions about providing payment and other services. Customer Stakeholders
include education institutes for study being undertaken, employers where customers work,
real estate for property related to customers residence or investments, financial institutes
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where customers manage their money or investments, and other government departments
which record customer details (e.g. Australian Tax Office has information about tax payers).
Finally, the department interacts with Policy Agencies and Service Owners, because it is a
provider of social welfare and related services, not an owner or policy setting agency of the
services. Other agencies are responsible for the policy and service ownership of the
department’s payments and services. Specifically, Australian Federal Parliament and other
Australian State and Local parliaments pass laws that impact on the kinds of services and
payments delivered by the department. Policies will define services, customer cohorts they
are intended to support, rules for assessing these, obligations by citizens when they are
granted these, and penalties that could apply (e.g. related welfare fraud). Policy Agencies and
Service Owners such as the Department of Social Security interact with the department to
convert policy, new payments, business rules etc. into business processes. The impact of new
policy settings on existing processes needs to be carefully understood and change plans need
to be put in place. Other Policy Agencies and Service Owners are Queensland’s Department
of Housing, where services provided by Queensland Government might impact services
provided by the department (e.g. if a customer needs housing assistance support, there
should be a clear understanding about which agencies they should apply to – e.g. the
department of Queensland’s Department of Housing).
2. Organisational structure
The department’s organisational chart provides an insight into the key actors and business
capabilities that support its charter. A summary of the key areas2 of the organisation are as
follows:
● Service Delivery Operations: this area covers service delivery management for
customers across the channels and core business processes and systems. This involves
supporting customers to:
o Register and get a customer profile (record)
o Discover payments and services for specific needs and customer circumstances
o Assess eligibility for services (whether customers can receive payments and
other services given their circumstances such as the income and assets they
have)
o Assess entitlement for the services (Determining how much customers are
entitled to receive given their personal circumstances)
o Set up services (e.g. setting up payments for fortnightly transfer to customers)
o Running/managing the services over the time that they have been set up to
deliver. It also involves interactions with delivery partners for assisted services
delivery.
Section 3 describes service delivery management in more detail;
● Payments Reform (Transformation): this area involves planning, design and
implementation of key systems that introduce new ways of undertaking service delivery3.
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An understanding of the full organisational structure of the department is beyond the scope of this
assignment. Only the organisational areas highlighted in this section are relevant. Of these areas, “Service
Delivery Operations” is the central focus. Its processes and systems are further detailed in section 3.
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An example of a system being designed and development under Payments Reform is the Welfare Payments
Infrastructure Transformation, which is intended to provide a modernised system for delivery social welfare
payments and other services through the department.
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The teams in this area undertake future state business strategy, business architecture,
solutions architecture and solutions implementation (including solutions procurement
from the market);
● Integrity and Information: This area is involved in analysing data generated through
service delivery to manage:
o Fraud (when payments are either claimed or made for customers reporting false
circumstances)
o Compliance (to determine that customers are providing timely and accurate
information and following the right processes in relation to receiving services)
o Debt resulting from when customers should not have received full or part
payment;
● Corporate and Financial Services: This area is responsible for the internal processes and
systems supporting the department’s management as an organisation. This includes:
o Human resources management (i.e. management of staff)
o Financials (accounting)
o Product management (procurements and fulfilments)
o Vendor management covering engagement, funding and tracking of product
suppliers (e.g. for office equipment), delivery partners (for assistance in service
delivery) and other service providers (e.g. for engagement of property services
such as cleaning);
● Chief Information Officer (CIO) Group: providing IT management for all the IT systems
used by the department. This involves supporting all sorts of systems including software
applications, software platforms (e.g. database system, operating system) and systems
infrastructure (hardware). It covers planning, design, implementation and running of IT
systems. Note, for designing and implementing systems, the CIO group works closely with
the Payments Reform (Transformation) area, which as described above is responsible for
running projects that introduce key systems to the department;
3. Service delivery business and IT systems
The department provides services through a number of enacted agencies. Centrelink is one
of the largest and provides payment and support services to the customer segments such as
job seekers, seniors (no longer working full-time), students and trainees, families, carers,
parents, people with disability, Indigenous Australians, and people from culturally and
linguistically diverse backgrounds.
To deliver services, the department uses a range of customer management, claims
lodgement, claims assessment, and service payment capabilities to deliver outcomes for
customers, as utilised through the Service Delivery Operations organisational area.
3.1 Customer needs, registration and service matching
Customers digitally access services through the department’s web site, interactive kiosks, and
mobile applications. The staff-assisted channels include service centres located in different
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towns and cities nationally, an integrated call centre with locations in different cities, postal
mail processed in service centres, and mobile service centres (trucks) that go out to regional
communities.
3.1.1 Online interactions
If a customer wishes to lodge a claim for support online, they first access the myGov portal,
which is the federal government’s ‘one-stop-shop’ entity from which services of the federal
government are meant to be accessed. To make a claim for social welfare, customers will
need a Centrelink online account which is linked to their Customer Profile (Record) identified
by a Customer Reference Number. With a profile in place, a customers can sign-in to their
account from myGov and connect to Centrelink (and other agencies) to gain access to
services. If customers do not have an account or customer profile, they will have visit a service
centre to be identified and provide documents to identify themselves (e.g. driver’s licence,
birth certificate). A profile and account will be issued by the department once customers are
accurately identified.
A claim form for payments and other services can be filled in online4. This form is used as the
basis to verify customer details in relation to their requests, perform assessments for
eligibility (checking conditions that customers should satisfy to receive one or more
payments/services) and entitlement (how much of one or more payments/services can be
supported).
A customer will be requested to provide all relevant details (as outlined by legislation policy
and associated business rules). The claim form will include customer information relevant to
themselves and their claims – i.e. Customer Reference Number, their names, identities (like
Tax File Number created through the Australian Tax Office), details of their dependents (e.g.
spouse and children), and other circumstances. Circumstances include the details of income
they earn, savings, assets such as cars and houses owned, courses they are studying).
For specifying their welfare support requirements, the customer nominates a number of
payments and services, available through the department, for their needs. A digital service
called Payment Finder is available for customers to find payments and services relevant to
their needs, to do a self-assessment about whether they are eligible for the service, and to
simulate how much they are entitled to (payment and services finder).
In some instances, information about a customer’s circumstances and other details are held
in systems of other agencies, or Customer Stakeholders. This may include information about
their tax records, family members, study courses, health care, jobs etc. This information
may be requested via the customer or through the department to Customer Stakeholders
using an automated data exchange system (for further details, see section 4).
There are certain aspects of making a claim which may require sending in information. For
example, documents related to claims can be sent to the department via scan/upload using
4 For a general appreciation of the instructions for making an online claim, see:
https://www.humanservices.gov.au/individuals/online-help/centrelink/claim-payment-online-using-yourcentrelink-online-account
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a document lodgement service. The customer is also asked to provide verification of their
identification and claims. Alternatively, a customer may post in documents or personally take
it into a service centre.
In addition to the Payment Finder, other customer services available online are customer
management (including capture and update of identity and circumstance details), claims
management (including claims lodgement, assessment, enquiries and tracking), document
lodgement, and customer feedback (related to input they provide the department for service
delivery).
3.1.2 Staff assisted interactions
In many instances, details of claim forms cannot be completed online and staff assisted
processes are required. Customers may then be directed to provide further information at a
service centre or by telephone at a call centre. Customers identify themselves via a service
centre or by telephone. In addition, they may provide updates about their circumstances in
relation to existing payments and services they receive, e.g. change of address or getting parttime work. These are called staff assisted interactions.
Customers who attend a service centre will on arrival be ‘triaged’ by a Customer Liaison
Officer to determine who the best Customer Service Officer to assist (i.e. staff at the service
centre). This could be a generalist officer or it could be a specialist such as a social worker.
Once triaged, the Customer will be directed to the next step of interactions. In some cases,
this may be immediate and in other cases there may be a wait period before a required officer
is available. In some other cases, an appointment will be booked at a future time for a
telephone or service centre meeting with the customer to get and validate more complex
details about the customer’s circumstances and social welfare needs.
In extreme cases, specialist social workers are assigned to assist customers in determining
special needs and making a plan to assist them. An example of where a social worker is
needed is where a customer may homeless or has experienced domestic violence. In such
examples, while running through the process of applying for claim is important, the
department recognises that customers are experiencing personal stress and other factors and
need proper social care and follow-up when applying for payments/services.
3.2 Claims processing
Once the claim is submitted, it is assessed using both the claim management system, rules
and staff expertise. Claims assessments will be made on the basis of circumstances of
customers and validating the details provided: financial, accommodation, medical,
employment, education, age, and family circumstances.
There are two key processes involved in the assessment. Firstly, eligibility to determine
whether a customer can receive the payment(s)/service(s) being requested based on
eligibility business rules (e.g. the customer needs to be an Australian citizen and cannot be
earning an income above a certain amount). Secondly, entitlement to determine how much
of payment(s) a customer can get, based on entitlement rules. During the process of making
these assessments, further information about customer circumstances may be queried and
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checked with customers and Customer Stakeholders. Customer queries take place through
email/SMS or letter notifications and customers typically come into service centres for further
interactions.
Once the claim assessment is finalised and successful (partly or wholly matching the
requests), a service offer is made to the customer. This may include both payments,
concession cards, and/or social support (e.g. referrals to specialist services). The service offer
will involve payment(s)/service(s) accepted by the department after the assessments, as well
as the conditions of access to these. These are called obligations, which may involve taking
action such as looking for work or undergoing training, and reporting to the department about
any change of circumstances.
The customer may be directed to work with a Customer Stakeholder as part of the
payments/services they receive, e.g. working with a job agency to find work. For customers
in extreme situations, the department sustains social care by making referrals for support
such as domestic violence protection, accommodation, or other welfare services. These
referrals are made by the Service Officer after consultation with a customer to outside
agencies, who are also forms of Customer stakeholders. Referrals are made via manual or
automated processes.
Customers can track their claims online using the claims management service or they can
speak to staff through a call centre or service centre about the status of their claims.
When a decision is made, they will receive notification of the service offer including the
payment(s)/service(s) and obligations by secured Email/SMS, and letter. Alternatively, the
department may request for further information from the customer.
The service offer needs to be put in place by allocating payment(s)/service(s) that have been
accepted by the department. This means allocating the funds available for services from the
department to the payment(s)/services(s) being offered.
Once the claim is finalised, data is transferred to the payment system to initiate the delivery
of payment to the customer’s bank account. Payment is generally available to the customer
within one or two days. In some instances of ‘hardship’ a customer maybe issued an
immediate or emergency payment which is also made through the electronic payment
system.
3.3 Service access
Once payment(s)/services(s) have been put in place, customers access these for the agreed
upon period by the department. Getting payment(s)/services(s) are subject to the same
circumstances of customers as when a claim was assessed. If these circumstances change –
for example, a customer on study assistance payment, gets a part-time job or gets married or
has a child – they need to be reported to the department immediately. Otherwise the
customer risks losing the payment(s)/services(s) provided.
In addition, the payment(s)/service(s) may have obligations on customers to take particular
action, e.g. reporting on jobs finding on a weekly basis to a job seeker organisation (i.e.
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Customer Stakeholder) or undertaking training. Obligations need to be recorded by the
department, and be captured by customers online, Customer Stakeholders, or staff
assistance. If customers fail to comply with obligations, they risk losing their
payment(s)/services(s).
4 IT systems used
● The myGov agency has a ‘One-Stop-Shop’ System supporting:
o The myGov portal
o Secure Gateway which supports communications between myGov and other
agency applications that it provides access to (currently the department and
the Australian Tax Office)
● The department has an integrated online web application to support its web site, a
mobile application and a kiosk application in support of its online channels
● The department has a Customer Relationship Management system which holds its
accounts and profiles of its registered customers (uniquely identified by a Customer
Registration Number). This system holds details of customers such as their
circumstances and data about obtained from Customer stakeholders (e.g. Tax File
Number, QUT Student Id). It also holds details of customer payments/services
accessed currently and in the past
● The department has a Service Management System supporting:
o Claims Management, which manages the capture, update and tracking of
claims made by customers
o Service Management, which manages the service offers, by way of
payment(s) and service(s) over a time period that customers access, the
obligations that put in place, and interactions that take place regarding
services – payments/services delivered, reports made by customers to
update their circumstances
● The department has a Payment Engine which supports the payments made to
customers
● The department has a Secure Partner Gateway for data exchange with Customer
Stakeholders, Delivery Partners and outside agencies
5 Tasks
For details of the assignment tasks, please read the following and also refer to the Assignment
Coversheet part of the document (above), in the section covering “Tasks & Marks”.
(i) Develop a multi-level business capability and related value streams based on the
“Assignment Brief” above. This will involve developing Service Delivery
Management and Customer Management Capabilities. A background on the
service delivery Management and Customer Management is provided in Section 2
and 3.
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The overall, a core of a business capability map is provided to students below. The
“Service Delivery Management” and “Customer Management” capabilities,
needed to be detailed by students, are highlighted.
L0: Social welfare management
● L1 1. Policy Management, which include analysis or new policy that has
been released in relation to payments and services to be delivered by the
department
● L1 2. Service Management, which includes service analysis (using new or
updated policies and analysis ‘service delivery big data’ captured through
service delivery systems); service design; and service implementation.
● L1 3. Service Delivery Management – missing details
● L1 4. Customer Management- Missing details
● L1 5. Channel Management
● L1 6. Product Management, which includes Procurements Management
and Fulfilments Management
● L1 7. Sales & Marketing Management
● L1 8. Partner (or Vendor) Management, which includes Supplier
Management (e.g. for office equipment); Delivery Partner Management
(for assistance in service delivery); Supplementary Service Provider
Management (e.g. for engagement of property services such as cleaning)
● L1 9. Human Resources Management (i.e. management of staff)
● L1 10. Financial Management which includes accounting
● L1 11. Product management which includes procurements and fulfilments
● L1 12. IT Management
● L1 13. Business Transformation Delivery, i.e. delivered through business
transformation projects for new initiatives of service delivery
The missing capability will need a graphical business capability model and textual
description describing each capability as described as part of this capability.
All assumptions made will be required to be briefly described.
(ii) Develop an ArchiMate model representing the enterprise architecture for the
Service Delivery Management capability and value stream from (i).
The ArchiMate model will need the business and IT application layers only. The IT
infrastructure layer (i.e. hardware and middleware platforms) is NOT required.
The model should be described in terms of a scenario-style explanation.
The ArchiMate model should capture key aspects of the business and IT service
delivery systems: all key business roles and the business actors that correspond to
them, business services, business channels, business collaborations between
roles, business processes, software application services, software applications and
software application components. Any key business information used in the
business processes should also be modelled.
All relationships between modelled elements should be provided. A key highlight
of the model should be the alignment between modelling element in business and
IT layers, so that it is clear which parts of the business use specific IT applications.
All assumptions made will be required to be briefly described.

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