district sight of your goods from initial voucher

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1.1 Background to the Study
Everyone knows stock out means money in, but without a district sight of your goods from initial voucher to ship date, your organization’s large valuable quality could be mislaying you money. The guide to an effective, profitable and remunerative trade is full visibility into the stock process from begin to end and administration tools to assist you retain optimal stock levels year-circular. An efficient stock administration method assists you streamline all the moving parts of your warehouse. From approving optimal stock levels all the way to keeping your supply chain organized and running smoothly. Stock is the goods that your organization handles with the intent of retailing. It might be raw materials that you purchase and turn into something completely modern, or it might be a bulk product that you breakdown into its constituent parts and sell individually. It could even be something totally intangible software, for instance. Stock management is how you track and control your business’ inventory as it is bought, manufactured, stored, and used. It manages the full flow of goods from buying right through to turnover determining that you always have the right quantities of the right item in the right location at the right time. The stock management system process involves controlling stock and tracking as it moves from your suppliers to your warehouse to your clients or customers. There are five most important stages to follow:
Purchasing: Buying of raw materials to turning it into buying products or products to retail on with no company required.
Production: To making your finished goods from its constituent parts. Not every organization will get concerned in making wholesalers, for example, might skip this step entirely
Holding Stock: to keep your raw materials before they are your finished goods and manufactured before they are sold.
Sales: Getting your stock into customers’ hands, and taking payment.
Reporting: Businesses need to know how much it is selling, and how much money it makes on each sale.
Biometrics is a method to provide reliable identification of individuals. Biometric technology measures physical or behavioral characteristics to determine the true qualities of a person or group. While just a few years ago biometrics were mostly the domain of science fiction, this technology is now mature and used in an increasing number of settings. Biometric systems can be systematized into two (2) states based on the relative biometric peculiarity: behavioral and biological. Biological characteristics are the physical peculiarity of body parts, such as hand contours or fingerprints, i.e. peculiarity that do not change considerably over a person’s life-spam or life-time. Behavioral biometric systems is a person actions and behavior. Illustration of monitored behaviors include voiceprints or signature movements. Behavioral biometric characteristics it’s also have a physical component, e.g. the articulatory system in the case of speech (George, 2019).
A biometric authentication is a technological system that uses information about a person or other biological organism to identify that person. Biometric authentication depend on specific data about unique biological traits in order to work effectively. In general, biometrics is any use of biological data in technology. Biometric methods provide identification by using specifications such as fingerprints, face, hand shape, iris, retina, voice track and signature. These specifications vary from person to person. Biometric solutions are generally client/server solutions, giving system administrators the ability to audit usage, manage security levels, and remove unauthorized users (Adem & Metin, 2011).
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Stores management system use ledger systems that results in a lot of undesired drawbacks. There is a lot of time wasting since the information is first written on hard copies then typed into a spreadsheet program. It takes a very long time to search for a particular record with the current system and lots of paper and ink are wasted too. This makes the system very inefficient. With flat files, data duplication is a common problem that results in all sorts of problem such as update and delete errors just to mention but a few. Since the ledger system can easily be manipulated and ledger books can also get lost thus leading to loss of data which is very vital for the company; this makes the system insecure.
This therefore resulted into a need for an automated stock management system to be put in place which would help in improving the system. The advent of an automated stock management system would thus rid of the problems nurtured by the manual ledger system. The biometric authentication process entail the availability of password provision to the customers that will have access to the base other problem posed by this are: breach of security could lead to lost of organizational stand; protecting confidential information is a business/organizational requirement to help protect the free flow of information; access to company/organizational database; lost of important files and protecting the confidentiality, integrity and availability of information.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The objective of this project is to design and implementation of an automated stock management system using biometric authentication. The specific objectives are to:
to survey existing work on an automated stock management system using biometric authentication in Nestle Nigeria Plc
to examine the requirements for designing the stock management system in Nestle Nigeria Plc
to develop a web based stock management system using biometric authentication in Nestle Nigeria Plc
to design and implementation the proposed system in Nestle Nigeria Plc
1.4 Research Questions
This study raised the following research questions:
What are the problems associated with the existing work on stock management system using biometric authentication in Nestle Nigeria Plc?
What are the requirements for designing the stock management system in Nestle Nigeria Plc?
How to develop a web based stock management system using biometric authentication in Nestle Nigeria Plc?
What are the methods used to design and implementation the proposed system in Nestle Nigeria Plc?
1.5 Significance of the Study
Due to the current problems in in existing system, the designed system can be more important to the company in the following ways.
Research is used by academicians in their researches as reference when it comes to reviewing literature.
The company is able to save a bit more money on expenses as it would not need to buy much paper and ink.
The system also goes a long way in reducing fraud as it would neatly keep track of all the assets in the company.
The customers are better served as information access with the new system would be far much faster.
The suppliers for the company also benefit as the new system makes it easier to know which items need to be restocked.
1.6 Scope of the Study
This research work covers stock management system and tends to correct anomalies due to manually biometric authentication system in business. It analyses Opening of New Stocks, stock updates and ability to view existing ones.
1.7 Operational Definition of Terms
The following terms are defined for easy understanding by readers and users of this work:
Automated: made to operate by machines or computers in order to reduce the work done by humans: an automated system.
Authentication: is the process of recognizing a user’s identity. … Different systems may require different types of credentials to ascertain a user’s identity.
Biometric: is the statistical analysis and measurement of people’s unique physical and behavioral characteristics.
Biometric Authentication: is a security process that relies on the unique biological characteristics of individuals to verify they are who they say they are. Typically, biometric authentication is used to manage access to physical and digital resources, such as buildings, rooms and computing devices.
Data: is defined as facts or figures, or information that’s stored in or used by a computer. An example of data is information collected for a research paper.
Database: also called electronic database, any collection of data, or information, that is specially organized for rapid search and retrieval by a computer.
DBMS: An acronym for Database Management System. A database management system provides the ability for many different users to share data and process resources. Suitable for communication interpretation of processing by people or by automation means.
Design: means to sketch or create a plan of something that is going to be made later, especially a plan that details what the finished thing will do and look like.
Management: is a process of decision making, leading, planning, organizing, controlling the human resources, financial, physical, and motivation, and information resources of an organization to reach its goals efficiently and effectively.
Stock: is a type of investment that represents an ownership share in a company. Investors buy stocks that they think will go up in value over time.
Stock Management: is the practice of ordering, storing, tracking, and controlling inventory. Debtor invoicing software helps small businesses and freelancers keep track of company assets.
Web Based: is any program that is accessed over a network connection using HTTP, rather than existing within a device’s memory.
2.1 Introduction
This chapter presents a review of related literature to the study of an automated stock management system, the review has been done in accordance with the research objectives which are design and implementation of an automated stock management system using biometric authentication.
2.2 Conceptual Literature Review
2.2.1 Concept of Stock Management System
Stock management refers to the process by which you track the amount of product you have on your warehouse shelf, in store or sitting with other retailers and distributors. This enables you to succeed in having the right number of units in the right place, at the right time and for the right price (Piasecki, 2017). Stock management dictates how you run your business, serve your customers and grow sales. For businesses based around selling products – from craft breweries to big wholesale distributors managing inventory efficiently is crucial.
Stock management system is a tool that allows you to track goods across your business’s supply chain. The transparency provided by this system has a big impact on the bottom line of a business. It optimises the entire spectrum spanning from order placement with your vendor to order delivery to your customer, mapping the complete journey of a product. Through correct tracking of goods, analyse trends, businesses can minimize waste and make better investment decisions. Types of Stock Management System
The following are the types of stock management system:
Safety Stock
Safety stock is the extra stock you hold in your warehouse to reduce the risk of overselling due to peaks in supply and demand.But you will need to calculate what the optimal level of safety stock is enough that you do not oversell on fast-moving stock, but not so much that you are tying up too much cash in your warehouse.
Safety Stock = 1.65 x Square Root of Lead Demand
Just-in-Time: It can be a great way of off-setting the risks associated with stock administration to your supplier instead or manufacturing business.With Just-in-Time you will receive goods before they need to be sold or shipped. This is helpful to small businesses that possibly do not have as much warehouse space, cash flow or monetary capital as larger ones. Instead of tying up cash in stock, you can instead invest that money on attracting more sales in the first place.
Contingency Planning
Your ecommerce business relies on its customers and how great their experience is, which is why an element of contingency planning should always be a top priority. As retail trends are constantly changing, it is important to keep a vigilant eye on your stock and warehouse management system in order to be prepared for any scenario.Particularly related to ecommerce stock management system.
Consignment Stock
Selling on consignment is when you send products to other retailers for them to store and sell on your behalf; with each business taking an agreed share of the profits.Any business can sell as a consignor or consignee but you will need to ensure you are able to accurately track stock both financially and physically.
ABC Analysis
The idea behind the ABC analysis is to effectively prioritize your attention and resources on stock that need it most. According to the Pareto Principle, 80% of overall stock consumption comes from just 20% of your total items. ABC analysis comes in useful to help you identify how to make your stock control as efficient as possible. Using this method as a starting point, you can split your stock into three categories based on value, cost and consumption. As an example: Group + a + b + c
Use these groups to help categorize your finished products and then you can ensure your stock management practices revolve around counting those items in Group A first, followed by Group B and C respectively.
Stock valuation method is a crucial step as it can have a significant impact on your reported profitability. For stock valuation, there are three methods for calculations:
LIFO (Last-In, Last-Out),
FIFO (First-In, First-Out),
AVCO (Average Cost or Weighted Cost).
FIFO is just like many other stock management systems as we feel this is the method that is most realistic against what is happening in your warehouse, while ensuring your balance sheet also reflects the actual costs you have paid to acquire stock.
Dead Stock and Surplus Stock
Excess stock, also referred to as excess surplus stock, it is result in dead stock if you do not have an effective stock administration strategy in place in order to adjust your order quantity and shift these products in order to prevent it from happening again.
Dead stock, or dead inventory, is used to describe products that were never sold or used by consumers before being removed from the sales process, perhaps because they are outdated or do not have the functionality customers want. Read on for some ideas on what you can do with both dead stock and excess stock.Cross-merchandising is a great strategy to help increase sales of your surplus stock and slow-moving items, allowing you to shift these products quicker.
Par Levels
Par levels are the minimum quantities you wish to have in stock for each product. If your stock counts go below that level, you know that you need to reorder that product.Setting your par levels (for both on-premise and in-transit stock) provides structure and a method of prioritization within your reordering process and is an excellent way of keeping up with demand.
Drop Shipping
Imagine for a moment that drop shipping is the “anti” stock management system. That might sound a little strange, but just like with JIT ordering, it is a way of offsetting the risk and costs of stock management to another business.Drop shipping involves shipments and forwarding sales orders as a request to your manufacturer or vendor. They will then be responsible for sending the items to your customers on your behalf, usually with your branding, so the customer is unaware you have even used a drop shipping company.
KPI Analysis
There are multiple retail KPIs you can analyze to help improve the workflows you have around stock planning. They are also helpful for preventing discrepancies in the warehouse. Here is what we recommend you keep an eye on:
Gross Margin influences your pricing and discounting strategies
Stock Turnover Rate affects how much working capital you’ll have for operating expenses
Returned Stock
With 89% of Nigeria shoppers claiming they would shop again from an online store if treated to a positive returns process, it is important to establish a good way of managing this type of stock within your stock management strategies. There are different ways to handle returned stock. To start with, we will focus on two types: authorized returns and automatic/blind returns.
Authorized returns: Demand customers to invite or email in their render requests
Blind returns: A free shipping label and return slip included with the allowing customers or original package to print a returns slip straightly from your web-site is required for this process.
If you require your customers to call or email in their return requests, we refer to these as ‘authorized returns’. Dealing with returns in this way offers your team the opportunity to speak with the customer to find out more about why they are returning the product and if a different product can be offered in exchange for it. It is also determine you have a aspect of stock you are expecting back into the warehouse, but it does require more man power and time.
On the other hand, blind returns or automatic can make the returns process easier for both your customers and others. A return free shipping and slip label contained within the allowing customers, or original package to print a returns slip direct from your website is required for this process. Although you won’t have a view of incoming stock in advance of it arriving at your warehouse, you will spend less time in the long-run, especially if you have reliable mobile devices on hand, enabling you to scan goods into the warehouse. Features of Stock Management System
The following are the features of stock management system:
Inventory Optimisation: It is the right amount of schedule for each work or product, without over or under-stocking any item. It is especially useful if you deal in products that experience a seasonal rise and fall in demand.
Stock Returns Handling: It is more effectively by reducing time-to-return through automation of the entire process.
Barcode Scanning: It is easily to identify and track your products; inventory administration software application integrates with barcode scanners for instant labeling and product identification.
Multi-location Administration or Management: It is manage points-of-sale (POS) and multiple warehouses. All locations can be integrated within a single inventory administration system.
Stock Notifications: It is use to receive notifications and alerts when there is over or under stocking beyond a defined threshold. It can be also helps management to offer promotional discounts or place orders to clear out extra stock.
Material Grouping: It is group inventory into predefined categories and ensure you are always updated about quantities of components and specifications that make up your product stock, and manage their reordering schedules as required.
RFID-Based In-Transit Tracking: It is useful for management, if your supplies come from a third-party and you dispatch goods for delivery. The leverages RFID technology to provide you with real-time tracking of your inventory in transit.
Warehouse Management: It is useful if you need to optimize your warehouse stock and maintain an accurate log of each product’s location. It wll give you a single view of where all of your products are stored.
Demand Forecasting: It is useful if you can draw on past data to identify future demand. It is not necessarily offered by all platforms, so if forecasting is important to you, be sure to ask the vendors on your shortlist about this capability.
Report Generation: It is enables management if you to manage items in your inventory that have not reached the sales levels you expected, for example, by offering discounts on them.
Purchase Order Records: Create a single view of purchase order records. You can easily identify which products are in demand, both perpetually and seasonally, and prepare to meet your customers’ needs. Benefits of Stock Management System
Keeping track of your stock is fundamental to your success in retail. At the most basic level, after all, your job is to supply the products to meet consumer demand. You cannot do that without effective stock management. Listed below are the top eleven benefits of effective stock management system. They all combine to explain the importance of accurate real-time tracking of stock, and can be easily achieved by using dedicated stock management system.
Happier Customers
Exact stock reports also help you provide better customer service. When customers say they have not received one of the products they ordered within a given time, it is not enough to check in with your supply chain management. If the product’s been lost, you need to be able to check your report and confirm that you have one extra in the warehouse. Likewise, if you regularly keep on top of stock levels, you can identify incorrect shipments sooner.And if your stock management system is up-to-date with purchase orders, you wll be able to sell customers the products they want because you will know new stock is on the way. This kind of communication encourages your customers to trust you, which in these competitive times, is a valuable asset.
Reduced Warehouse Costs
When your stock report tells you what you have in stock, the pick pack ship process runs more efficiently.Your warehouse staff do not need to run around looking for a missing stock item because you know exactly when it sold and shipped.This enables you to process more orders in the same amount of time with the same staff or balance your resources differently.
Theft and Loss Reduction
From theft to loss to damage, products can be lost in many ways. But if you manage accurate stock levels, you can identify issues quickly.And while no one wants to think that their staff may steal from them, it pays to be vigilant. Showing your staff that you keep an accurate stock is a great theft deterrent.
Better Invested Cash
To be successful in retail, you need to invest your cash wisely by buying the right quantity of each product enough to keep sales going and prevent stock-outs, but not so many that some items just sit on the shelf and increase carrying costs.Keeping accurate stock reports helps. You can quickly identify slow-moving products so you can mark them down and clear them out to free up cash to invest in new products, marketing and more.
Trusted Information Systems
Running an efficient and profitable business is all about sharing and using accurate information. One way to do this is through an software system that integrates with everything from your point of sale devices to barcode scanners.If your staff knows that the stock levels in your system are always up-to-date, they will trust the system and use it more for all of their tasks. And you will end up with cleaner data as a result for better reporting, collaboration and efficiency across the team.
Early Problem Detection
If you are keeping an eagle eye on your stock levels, you will spot problems right away instead of months later during annual cycle counts when the discrepancies may have already cost you a lot of money. Maybe a step in your warehouse process is being missed? Perhaps there is an error in your reorder point formula? Or one of your salespeople is making mistakes on sales orders? You need to know now!The best way? By constantly reconciling sales and purchases through a tightly maintained stock management system.
Peak Season Efficiency
In the event of high order volumes, such as those that arise during peak trading seasons, flash sale events, or when celebrities step out in your products, your stock numbers will be able to keep up in order to keep your sales flowing profitably across all channels but only if the numbers are accurate to begin with. Demand forecasting is key to reducing the total cost of managing a business.For growing retailers, especially those adding locations or channels, stock management system can seem overwhelming. We hope these eleven benefits of stock management illustrate that the efficiencies you will gain make it well worth your effort. A little focus on this foundational piece of your business can bring big rewards.
Easy to Reorder
Reordering will be much more efficient if your reports tell you what products are available. When you are working with correct stock numbers and a threshold limit is reached, you can use automation to trigger a new purchase order to replenish your goods and keep sales coming in.This means you can work methodically through your product set, making informed buying decisions instead of physically checking individual SKUs on your warehouse shelves to write a purchase order.If your reports come from advanced stock management system, you also can see if you already have products on order with a supplier and if your supplier has long lead times or irregular deliveries on finished goods. This information is a must if you want to keep reordering under control.
Cycle Counts and End of Year Efficiency
When all your stock levels are up-to-date all the time, periodic cycle counts are faster and more efficient because you are just confirming data that is already in your system instead of doing a lot of time-consuming data entry.
Fewer Missed Sales
When you do not keep an accurate stock report, it is easy to run out of products and miss out on sales. Instead of relying on your memory or a visit to the warehouse to decide what to reorder, use an up-to-date stock report to:
Quickly see what products you are running low on
Compare your stock level with what is been selling well
Place reorders with wholesalers before you run out
Depending on what stock system you use, you also might be able to set minimum stock levels for each item. Then you can view the list of products that are below that level and place and send new purchase orders quickly.
More Accurate Reports
Accurate product reports produce accurate stock cost values, which are essential to the precision of several financial reports if you use cost of sale accounting.This method associates a cost, which comes directly from the product’s asset value with each sale.That makes correct cost values critical to your balance sheet, as well as your cost of sales and income statement, upon which many management decisions hinge.
2.2.2 Concept of Biometric Authentication
Biometrics means “life measurement” but the term is usually associated with the use of unique physiological bio-data to identify an individual. Biometric authentication it is also known as biometric data capture is a security process that relies on the unique biological bio-data or personality of an individual to verify that he is who is says he is. Biometric authentication systems compare a biometric data capture to stored, confirmed authentic data in a database, At the moment, we are living in an extremely small world. Individuals are highly mobile, constantly connected to each other, and their daily lives are highly influenced by the information technologies in particular mobile devices and social networking. In such societies, most of the services are delivered electronically via intelligent machines that can be accessed remotely. These include banking, e-commerce, governmental-services to citizens, hotel booking, social aides, and many other fields related to work, traveling, defense, education, business and social relationships (Sahoo, 2017).
According to Aleksandra (2016) states that biometrics authentication is used in computer science as a form of identification and access control. The software application is the most people associate with biometrics is security. Biometric identification has eventually a much broader relevance as computer interface becomes more natural. Knowing the person with whom you are conversing is an important part of human interaction and one expects computers of the future to have the same capabilities. A number of biometric traits have been developed and are used to authenticate the person’s identity.
The idea is to use the special distinctions of a person to identify him. By using special distinctions we mean the using the features such as iris, face, signature, fingerprint etc. Different types of biometrics are used in any identification system, such as Ear (Visual Biometric), Eyes (Iris Recognition and Retina Recognition), DNA Matching (Chemical Biometric), Fingerprint Recognition (Visual Biometric), Face Recognition (Visual Biometric), Gait (Behavioral Biometric), Voice (Speech and Speaker Recognition), Signature Recognition (Visual/Behavioral Biometric) etc (Biometrics Institute Limited, 2018).
A biometric system it is a verification (authentication) system or an identification system. Biometrics it is used to determine a person’s identity even without his consent or knowledge. For syntax, using face recognition technology, scanning a crowd with a camera and one can determine matches against a known database. Biometrics it is also be used to verify a person’s identity. For syntax, one can grant physical access to a secure area in a building by using finger scans or can grant access to a bank account at an ATM by using retinal scan (Opoku, 2018).
Al-Ofeishat, (2019), biometrics authentication can also be used in the banking sector to keeping track of all activities been carried out by each customer that performs transaction through the ATM. With an ATM, a customer or client is able to conduct many banking activities such as cash withdrawal, paying electricity & phone bills, money transfer, beyond official hours and physical interaction with bank staff.
A newer high-tech method of operating sometimes called card cloning to entangle the installation of a magnetic card reader over the ATM’s card slot & the use of a wireless surveillance camera to keep the user’s Personal Identification Number. Real Card data are then cloned into a duplicate card & the criminal attempts to cash withdrawal. To overcome this piracy in money transactions, the idea using fingerprints of customers as password along with the traditional pin number (Opoku, 2018). Functions of Biometric Authentication
The proposed system is a digitally powered computerized biometric authentication system comprising two major components. Namely, hardware and software. The hardware comprises of personal computer system, a thumb scanner, and a system camera, internet service facilities. The software consists of a digitally mastered database system, a user friendly interface and internet server software.
Owing to the above mentioned facilities the proposed system shall emerge as “modern biometric facilities equipped with the following capabilities.
Effective Students Registration: They will be capable to register thousands of students with ease and efficiency. This will render the manual registration process unnecessary.
Database Management: The database system of the proposed system is highly efficient and digitally powered, which will automatically address the problem of multiple entries and safety of data.
Biometric Data Capture: The biometric data collected during registrations will make screening process more authentic and easier. No student can be mistakenly identified as far as “thumb print” is concerned.
Authentication Number: An automatically generated authentication number will be given to each student immediately after screening. This code number helps to dissuade student’s material outside the exam hall.
Note that, the biometric thumb printing technology will make it impossible for any illegal students to gain access to examination hall thereby eradicating the problem of impersonation as well as security threats. Factors of Biometric Authentication
Factors that can be used to authenticate an individual in Biometric Authentication System
(BAS) include:
Something Somebody (person) Knows: Commonly a password or pin. If the correct password or pin number is typed access will be granted.
Something a person has: Most commonly a physical device referred to as a token. Token include self-contained devices that must be physically connected to a computer or devices that have small screen where OTP is displayed which the user must enter into an interface to be authenticated by back end server.
Something the person is: Commonly physical characteristics such fingerprint, voice pattern hand geometry or pattern of veins in the user eyes. This type of authentication is related to biometric. Attacks of Biometric Authentication
There are seven main areas where attack may occur in a biometric system,
Presenting a fake finger or a face mask. It is also possible try and resubmitting previously stored digitize biometric signals as a copy of a fingerprint or voice recording.
Presenting feature sets presentation by the intruder over riding the feature extraction process.
Tempering with the biometric featured representation, the features extracted from the input signal are replaced with a fraudulent feature set.
Attacking the channel between the stored templates and the matcher the stored templates are sent to the NCE- through a communication channel. The data travelling through this channel could be intercepted and modified. There is a real danger if the biometric feature set is transmitted over the internet.
Corrupting the matcher, the matcher is attacked and so that it produces pre-selected match with stored templates, either locally or remotely.
Overriding the match result.
2.2.3 Information Systems
Information system is an integrated set of components for collecting, storing, and processing data and for delivering information, knowledge, and digital products. Business firms and other organizations rely on information systems to carry out and manage their operations.
According to the journal Information Systems that published articles concerning the design and implementation of languages, data models, process models, algorithms, software and hardware for information systems. Information systems are the software and hardware systems that support data-intensive applications.
Information System refers to means by which data flows from one person to another and can encompass everything from inter-office mail & telephone links to a computer system that generate public report for various users (Onyekwelu, 2018). An information system is an academic study of the complementary networks of hardware and software that people and organizations use to collect, filters, and process, create and also distribute data. Any specific information system aims to support operations, management and decision making. An information system is the information and communication technology that an organization uses, and also the way in which people interact with this technology in support of business processes (Saurabh & Satinderjit, 2017). Components of Information Systems
The following are the components of information systems:
Input: is anything we wish to embed in a system for some type of use. A variety of sources are used to input: keyboard, scanner, microphone, mouse, even another computer. What we input has a purpose – but until it is processed and generated in some form of output, it doesn’t do us much good. An example in this matter is Microsoft Excel, Printer etc.
Processing: takes place in the internal parts of the computer. It is the act of taking inputted data and converting it to something usable. Is the result of our input being processed by some program so we can have usable output: for the system built it takes the stock filled in the system and converts it to a report which becomes very useful to the top management.
Output, or processed information in a usable format, comes in many different forms: monitor or printer for visual work, a speaker for audio. Sometimes our output is short-term, such as printing a photo, and sometimes what we work on needs to be kept around for a while. That’s where storage comes in. In this case we can relate to a Customer Invoice, Sales report, Stock report etc. found in the Automated Inventory Management system.
Storage: is the term used to indicate we will be saving data for a period of time. We store for many reasons: for future reference; to prevent full loss of data; because we forget to purge. But, storage is vital. There are several mediums on which we can keep output and processed data: a hard disk, a USB drive, a CD.
2.2.4 Problem Associated with Old System
During my analysis of the existing system of an automated stock management system in the course of my Project Research, it was observed that some problems that were inherent in the existing system are listed below as follows:
Monotonous storage of record
Misplacement of customer record due to negligence on the part of workers.
The system is not cost effective
Slow and strenuous retrieval of records and report of students.
Inaccurate diagnoses due to wrong record keeping
2.2.5 The Need for New System
Because of the problems inherent in the existing system in the stock management system, the need for computerization becomes imperatives. These are listed below as follows:
Record and reports of customers will be easily retrieved with increased data security.
There will be reduction in the amount of resources, which in turn will lower the cost of medical service, since information will be stored in a database with reduced data redundancy.
Nestle Nigeria Plc personnel can attend to customers without being over worked.
There will be reduction in time used in retrieval of customer files.
It will make available the storage room that was used for storage of files.
2.3 Design of Biometric Authentication System (BAS)
Design of biometric authentication systems available in the market are mostly software-based. This is due to the ease of use as well as the low cost of the mechanism. Design of biometric authentication system has to consider these factors in the design. Likewise, the system designed for PBAS uses simplified hardware which minimises the cost of production.
The system is designed to be compatible with any type of personal computer. Moreover, it does not require any external power supply. In general, the system components are low cost and commonly available in the market. System starts by prompting user to enter his/her user ID and password. The alphanumeric keyboard extracts the pressure template for the password entered. At the same time, the system calculates the latency pairs for the entered password and accompanies it with pressure template in a single data file. This data file is transferred to the system’s database.
In the learning mode, the user is required to repeatedly key in the password for several times (8–20) to stabilize his/her keystroke template. In the authentication mode, the user is requested to enter his/her ID and password. The resulting pressure template and latency vector are compared with those modeled in the database using the AR and latency classifiers. Depending on the results of this comparison, the user will be either granted or denied access to the system.
3.0 Introduction
In this research work, attention is focused on methodology employed in analyzing data collected as through the design and implementation of an automated stock management system, having research system design, existing system, challenges of the existing system, database technology, database files, database design and system architecture, among others.
3.1 System Design
The automated inventory management system design consists of such elements as the architecture, modules and components, the different interfaces of those components and the data that goes through that system. It is meant to satisfy specific needs and requirements of a business or organization through the engineering of a coherent and well-running system.
3.2 Existing System
During the data collection method the researchers found out the following;
The sales manager for the stock records information of the products and stock on paper, later on using the Microsoft Excel sheet program to record the whole data from the paper work, he uses the program to edit the information before sending the reports to the top level management.
For the paper file systems, they are kept in the file cabinets for future use
For customers placing orders, they were recorded down on paper and also stored using the paper file systems.
On the matter of payment from customers, a receipt containing the details of orders of the customer was being issued to them.
Information about the customers, suppliers were also captured using the file based system, and processed in the Microsoft Excel sheet program.
3.3 Challenges of the Existing System
It is clear that most of the challenges of the existing system with the manual system originated from:
Inefficiency in track record due to over confidence on paper work.
Wastage of office room due to composition of manual files.
Retrieval, manipulation and poor storage of data when required; a lot of time was normally wasted while trying to carry out all these and hence there was need for a new system that would solve problems of data redundancy, with ability to sort information, stock control, reduce search time, allow easy data manipulation, time wasting, put out reports among others.
3.4 Database Technology
The database system that will be used to store the information for this system will be MySQL. This part actually portrays the database file that was used in this program in order to house and store information in the program, for this program to work effectively. MySQL was the chosen database technology. This tool allowed for the rapid creation of schema and all tables, constructed via a MySQL graphical user interface (GUI) application called PhpMyAdmin.
3.5 Database Files
The database system that will be used to store the information for this system will be MySQL. In this work, the name of the database is called “NOUN” and the storage and retrieval of information is done using PHP-Script Language. Below are the descriptions and structure of the database files to be used by the system.
Table 1: Login
Field Name
Field Size
Data Type
Figure 1: This database file will contain the login information about the users of the system.
Another table of interest in our “Nestle Nigeria Plc ” database is the customers table consisting of all the registered customers or users of the system. Table 2 shows the schema of the customers table as contained in the Nestle Nigeria Plc database.
Table 2: Customer Registration
Field Name
Field Size
Data Type
Figure 2: This is the table for storing data about the customer.
Similarly, the placement table is used to store the addresses of all the eligible companies that the students can do their Nestle Nigeria Plc programme. The Php Script program queries this table based on the address and city of a registered customer and place such customer in a location close to the e-mail entered. Table 3 shows the placement table as contained in the Nestle Nigeria Plc database.
Table 3: Admin
Field Name
Field Size
Data Type
Figure 3: This table contains information about the admin of daily activities carried out by the customers.
3.6 Database Design
It is fair to say that database play a critical role in almost all areas where computers are used, including business, electronic commerce, engineering, medicine, law, education, and library science. Databases are collections of interrelated data of such a nature that the collections can be represented as a number of files but not a single file. Depending on an automated stock management system used, these files may be integrated permanently into a single connected structure or integrated temporarily for each interrogation, known as a query (Garcia-Molina, 2008).
3.7 System Architecture
The design of an automated stock management system depends on its architecture. It can be centralized or decentralized or hierarchical. The architecture of an automated stock management system can be seen as either single tier or multi-tier. An n-tier architecture divides the whole system into related but independent n modules, which can be independently modified, altered, changed, or replaced.
Figure 3.1 Data Flow Diagram for an Automated Stock Management System
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