COMPETITIVE STRATEGY

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爱丁堡商学院
竞争战略
2021年6月
请注意,该试卷的答题时间大约需要3个小时,
但是您有24小时的时间来完成、检查和上传答案。
24小时期限始于2021年6月7日星期一上午10点(格林威治时间),
上传时间必须不晚于2021年6月8日星期二上午10点(格林威治时间)。
试卷说明
本试卷共含有 3 道试题。
每道试题100分。
请回答所有问题。
所有问题中都已注明最多字数限制。
1
赫瑞-瓦特大学
竞争战略 – 2021 年 6 月
第一题 答案最多字数限制1500字(中文最多不超过2550字)
Varisport是一家历史悠久的中型欧洲公司,它专门为各个不同的市场生产运动器材。多年来
它曾在许多市场上处于领先地位,但如今在其中的许多领域都已开始滑向第二或第三的位置。
该公司采用M型结构,根据产品组设立分部,如田径部、网拍运动部和冰雪运动部等。所有的
市场营销、生产和研发活动都在这些分部内进行。
Varisport的董事会对于公司在许多领域内的地位似乎无法阻挡的下滑感到困惑,甚至绝望。
公司所面对的一个共同主题似乎是,它不再生产曾赖以建立声誉的创新产品。
董事会决定委托一名顾问,就公司可能出了什么问题,以及他们可以如何做提供建议。 你已得
到了这份顾问合同,必须就以下问题向董事会提供建议。
问题:
(a)
Varisport公司在创新方面的不景气在多大程度上可能是由公司能够控制的因素造成
的?
(30分)
(b) 论述支持及反对Varisport成立一个公司层面的研发实验室来负责公司全部的研发活动
的理由。
(30分)
(c) 公司还可以考虑采取哪些其他策略来提高其创新绩效?
(40分)
(第一题共100分)
2
第二题 答案最多字数限制1500字(中文最多不超过2550字)
戴尔与个人电脑
2017年1月,《商业内幕》(Business Insider)的记者Matt Weinberger发表了一份报告,指
出个人电脑(PC) )市场连续五年出现萎缩。此前Matt Rosoff(《商业内幕》的另一位记
者)的报告显示,在1997 – 2015年期间, PC的实际价格(将通货膨胀考虑在内)有了大幅下
降。
Weinberger还指出,近些年来的许多创新都来源于智能手机和平板电脑,而相比之下, PC市场
在开发与推出新产品方面变得缓慢。此外,用户坚持不换PC的时间也开始变得更长。
戴尔(Dell) 在被惠普(HP)于2009年取代其作为美国PC市场份额的主导者的地位之前,曾是
PC销售方面的老大。至2017年,戴尔已经落后于联想(Lenovo)和惠普, 而就在这一年, 全球
PC销量下降了近6%。到2015年,戴尔仅占全球市场份额的14%左右。戴尔的研发费占年收入
的比例通常也要比竞争公司低得多。
乍一看,所有这些因素似乎都对戴尔不利。但戴尔2016年的销售额增长了4.3%,而所有主要
竞争对手的销售额都下降了,苹果的PC销售额下降了近10%。
显然,有很多因素可能导致了戴尔在短短一年内取得了这样好的成就。然而, Weinberger指
出,许多企业都在考虑对其PC进行升级,他认为戴尔与竞争对手相比在将来可能会做得比现在
还要好。
不同的公司在PC行业尝试过不同的战略。戴尔直接向客户销售并按订单生产产品,它专注于质
量与成本控制以及简化装配,其库存水平低于竞争对手。它在选择位置方面的政策强调低人工
成本和靠近主要市场,并且通常倾向于与少数几家首选供应商建立长期合作关系(例如,英特
尔的处理器, EMC的存储硬件,和Lexmark的打印机)。
它还实行多元化,进入了服务器市场,这些服务器是公司用来运行复杂软件程序的配有多种微
处理器的计算机。戴尔在服务器市场注重用于运行标准化操作系统的低成本硬件。它早些时候
实行过向辅助设备发展的多元化,如进入了由惠普主导的打印机市场,并且越来越多地将这些
辅助设备打上戴尔的商标,以低于惠普的价格销售简易而廉价的打印机。
问题:
(a)
戴尔目前所处的PC产品生命周期阶段的特征是什么?利用案例中所给的信息论证你的
答案。
(25分)
(b) 鉴于该行业所遇到的实际问题,戴尔在PC行业的战略是有竞争力和可持续的吗?请解
释你的答案。
(25分)
(c) 戴尔的多元化战略是明智的吗?请解释你的答案。
(30分)
3
(d) 与许多竞争对手相比,戴尔的研发开支占销售收入的比例较低。这是不是它的一个潜
在弱点?请解释你的答案。
(20分)
(第二题共100分)
4
第三题 答案最多字数限制1500字(中文最多不超过2550字)
行业演变
作为你们公司的战略分析师,你负有的特殊责任中包括向董事会介绍与公司竞争战略的制定相
关的问题。此前,你曾向董事会提交过有关行业生命周期和五种竞争力量模型的咨询说明,现
在董事会要你回答这样的问题:行业生命周期如何以及为什么会影响对行业演变过程中不同阶
段的五种竞争力量分析?
问题:
你的任务是就董事会所提的问题准备一份咨询报告。董事会没有要求你针对哪种或哪些行业,
所以你决定用你所熟悉的一些行业的实际例子来说明你的答案。
(第三题共100分)
总分300分
试卷到此结束
Edinburgh Business School
COMPETITIVE STRATEGY
JUNE 2021
Please note that it should take approximately 3 hours to complete this exam.
However, you do have a 24 hour period to complete, review and upload your
answers.
The 24 hour period began at 10:00 AM (GMT) on Monday 7 June 2021 and must
be uploaded no later than 10:00 AM (GMT) on Tuesday 8 June 2021.
INSTRUCTIONS
This examination paper consists of three questions.
Each question is worth 100 marks.
There is no choice in the selection of questions to be answered.
Maximum word limits are provided for all written sections.
1
HERIOT-WATT UNIVERSITY
COMPETITIVE STRATEGY – JUNE 2021
Question 1 Maximum Word Limit 1500 words
Varisport is a long-established medium-sized European firm specialising in sports equipment
in a variety of markets. It has held leading positions in many of its markets over the years,
but now it is beginning to slip into a number 2 or number 3 slot in many cases. The firm
operates an M-form structure organised by divisions based on groups of products such as
Athletics, Racquet Sports, Snow Sports, etc. All marketing, production and R&D activity
takes place within these divisions.
The Board of Varisport is puzzled and indeed desperate over what seems an unstoppable
slide in the position of the company in so many areas. The one common theme appears to
be that it is no longer producing the stream of innovative products that helped make its
reputation.
The Board decided to commission a consultant to advise them on what might have gone
wrong and what they could do about it. You have won the contract and have to advise the
Board on the following questions.
Questions
(a)
To what extent might matters under the control of Varisport have contributed to its
disappointing innovative performance?
(30 marks)
(b) Discuss the arguments for and against Varisport setting up a corporate level R&D lab
responsible for all of the company’s R&D.
(30 marks)
(c) What other policies might the company consider to boost its innovative performance?
(40 marks)
(Total 100 marks)
2
Question 2
Dell and the PC
Maximum Word Limit 1500 words
In January 2017 Matt Weinberger of Business Insider published a report which noted that
the personal computer (PC) market had been shrinking for five years continuously. And an
earlier report by Matt Rosoff (also of Business Insider) had shown that the real price of PCs
(allowing for inflation) had fallen dramatically over the period 1997–2015.
Weinberger also noted that smart phones and tablets had been the source of many
innovations in recent years, but by comparison the PC market had become slow to introduce
new developments. Also, users had started keeping their PCs for longer.
Dell had held the top rank in PC sales until Hewlett-Packard (HP) had overtaken it as the PC
market share leader in the USA in 2009. By 2017, Dell had fallen behind both Lenova and
HP, while global shipments of PCs had fallen by nearly 6% in 2017. By 2015 Dell had only
about 14% of global market share. Dell also had traditionally spent a much lower percentage
of annual revenues on R&D compared to its major rivals.
At first sight, all these factors would seem unfavourable to Dell. But Dell had increased its
sales by 4.3% in 2016, while sales of all its major competitors fell, Apple’s PC sales falling by
nearly 10%.
Clearly there are many factors that could lead to Dell doing well in just one year. However,
Weinberger noted that many businesses were looking to upgrade their PCs and was
optimistic that Dell could do even better in the future compared to its rivals.
Different firms had tried different strategies in the PC industry. Dell sold direct to customers
and built products to order, concentrating on quality and cost control, and streamlined
assembly, with lower inventory levels than its rivals. Its location policy emphasised low
labour costs and closeness to major markets, and it traditionally favoured close long-term
partnerships with a few preferred suppliers (e.g. Intel for processors, EMC for storage
hardware, Lexmark for printers).
It had also diversified into the market for servers, which were computers with multiple
microprocessors used by companies to run complex software programmes. Dell emphasised
low-cost hardware to run standardised operating systems in the server market. It had also
earlier been diversifying into peripherals, such as the HP-dominated printer market,
increasingly branding them as Dell products and undercutting HP on price with cheap,
simple printers.
Questions
(a)
What are the characteristics of the stage of the PC product life cycle now facing Dell?
Justify your answer by using information from the case.
(25 marks)
(b) Does Dell’s strategy in the PC sector appear competitive and sustainable, given the
real problems the sector has been experiencing? Explain your answer.
(25 marks)
(c) Does Dell’s diversification strategy make sense? Explain your answer.
(30 marks)
3
(d) Dell spends a low proportion of sales on R&D compared to many of its rivals. Is this a
potential source of vulnerability? Explain your answer.
(20 marks)
(Total 100 marks)
4
Question 3
Industry evolution
Maximum Word Limit 1500 words
You are a strategy analyst for your company and have particular responsibilities for briefing
the Board on matters that could be of relevance to the formulation of competitive strategy.
You have sent advisory notes on the industry life cycle and the Five Forces framework to the
Board in the past and now the Board has asked you to answer the question: how and why
would you expect industry life cycle considerations to influence what a Five Forces analysis
would look like for different stages of the evolution of an industry?
Question
Your task is to prepare an advisory note on the questions posed by the Board. The Board
has not given you any guidance as to what kind of industry or industries you should
consider, so you have decided to illustrate your advice with examples of actual industries
you are familiar with.
(Total 100 marks)
TOTAL 300 MARKS
END OF PAPER

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