“Car Recognition” project

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Acknowledgement
I am pleased to present “Car Recognition” projectand takethis opportunity to express my profound gratitude to all those people who helped me in completion of this project.
I would like to thank my university for providing me with excellent facilities that helped me to complete and present this project. I would also like to thank the tutors, staff members and lab assistants for permitting us to use computers in the lab as and when required.
I express my deepest gratitude towards my project guide for his/her valuable and timely advice during the various phases in my project. I would also like to thank him/her for providing us with all proper facilities and support as the project co-coordinator. I would like to thank him/her for support, patience, and faith in my capabilities and for giving me flexibility in terms of working and reporting schedules.
I would like to thank all my friends for their smiles and friendship making the college life enjoyable and memorable and family members who always stood beside me and provided the utmost important moral support. Finally, I would like to thank everyone who has helped me directly or indirectly in our project.
Student Name:
Student Number:
Course:
Year of study: 3rd
Project supervision team:
TABLE OF CONTENT
Sr. No.
Contents
11.1 1.2 1.3 1.4
PROJECT OVERVIEW
Introduction Scope and Objective Modules and its Description Existing System & Proposed System
22.1
PROJECT ANALYSIS
Gantt Chart
33.1
PROJECT LIFECYCLE
Project Lifecycle Details
44.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6
PROJECT DESIGN
E-R Diagram Use Case Diagram Sequence Diagram Activity Diagram Data Flow Diagram System Architecture
55.1
SNAPSHOTS
Project Snapshots
66.1 6.2
PROJECT IMPLEMENTATION
Project Implementation Technology Feasibility Report
77.1
CODING
Project Coding
88.1 8.2 8.3
TESTING
Testing Levels of Testing Test Cases
99.1 9.2 9.3
ADVANTAGES & LIMITATIONS
Advantages Limitations Features
1010.1
CONCLUSION
Project Conclusion
1111.1
BIBIIOGRAPHY
Website Links
PROJECT OVERVIEW
Introduction
Car tracking is something that have been in the development system in recent years. Many researchers have been working to field the best technologies to use in this field. Especially in understanding the locations and information pertaining a vehicle without necessarily consulting the owner or the driver. But rather the information getting the information from a central database.
Most developers are now relying on the real time method. The method used is the use of computer vision technique. Many developers have been trying to upgrade it to get real time information pertaining a vehicle. The only big issue has been the upgrading of the system.
Moreover, Car Recognition system is a highly secure and easy to install and use. The system reduces human efforts and can automatically scan vehicles and supports user identification.
Car Recognition simplifies the Car Identification and fetch details of users by removing the need for manually identifying a vehicle using secure scanning methods also we can search the vehicle details manually.
System generally focuses on accessing details of car by scanning them and taking an appropriate action accordingly.
However, Car Recognition system is very useful in car scanning and identifying that if the vehicle is involved in any kind of malpractices or rules violation.
In recent years because of increased security awareness, several systems were proposed to identify cars via different features such car plate recognition, car front view features, etc. This system is quite useful in today’s date as the number of malpractices are increasing day by day which are difficult to handle manually so this system reduces manpower and saves time for identifying these kinds of malpractices with higher accuracy.
Front End: Android – Java
Back End: MSSQL
IDE: Android Studio
Background and related work
The research topic is car recognition system. More of a real time system that can be used to track vehicles in real time. This helps in several ways like understanding the owner, information pertaining the vehicle, make, location of the car, and other information that might be connected to the Number Plate.
The data is collected concerning the number plate system by capturing pictures using the app and it will detect the plate number. The information is passed to the OCR to note the Number and read it to the database. From there the database displays information to the user.
The research project is based on car tracking system for a car park in a hospital using the number plate. This is whereby, the client of the system user is expected to query the database using the front-end Android and get the results of the input by displaying information like who is the car owner, the make, and other details. The main thing in the project is the database design and the user front end design, plus the design of the app.
Scope and Objectives
In this chapter we discuss the methods that has been used in the coding and the implementation of the project. First, we had to select the algorithms to use, and these algorithms have been discussed well and in deep and how they were affected in the codding.
Objective: As the main objective of the “Car Recognition System” is to identify vehicles and their owner’s information, which will reduce the human burden regarding their vehicle’s safety. Car recognition System is the versatile application solution. There has been suggestion on the implementation in several firms to be able to track their vehicles and know the driver & car details among other details, to ensure that the procedure is followed accordingly and as smoothly as possible.
Design: This application is designed in such a way that it works well in all weather conditions as well as identify vehicle and store details about each vehicle which is blacklisted and charges a particular fine for different rule violation.
Character segmentation: this section pertaining to the processing of the plate after information have been collected in the field. The app has been designed with an algorithm to effectively perform these and evaluate text on the plate. The algorithm is designed to ensure that it does not collect invalid information. It only collects the relevant information to store it in the back-end database.
Features: firstly, the best feature of this system is that it is an android application which makes it easier to manage the system. This recognition system does not require a person to go to the office manually for getting any detail regarding any of the car.
Secondly, this software will prove to be very useful in various ways such as more cars can be scanned in less amount of time with less effort.
Lastly, it can be used by police departments also for theft catching. It makes the data storage of cars in various streams, very easy and versatile.
Extracting features from an image that have been saved involves small series of steps which are monitored by use of agent based trained model. Proper algorithms that will be discussed in the future topics and will be implemented at these steps of extracting the features on an image. More to extracting an image: the image which need to extract features is first made into separate units. Small units and cells that have been sub-divided contain all the features on the image, hence extracting will be simpler with the small sized cells. In a single cell, a unique ID is assigned to that cell. This unique ID is based on ID histogram technique. Will create a unified histogram description. Comparative changes will also be made to make interpretation less visible in light and shadow. This can be done by compiling local histograms over large areas (“blocks”).
Discussions:
There are different methods of active construction depending on the location of the application. One of the most important things to consider is the proxy calculations that can result from the results.
System development was done well, and outputs were collected. Although for such a system under many circumstances there would be needed to adjust the time, we were able to deal well with some parts like the training but there is still need for ample time since the project is wide.
Plate recognition system is something that have been in progress, but we have been able to create a more unique solution for the same.
Our solution was to integrate with the front end where the user can perform a direct query of the database by simply using their phone camera. When the information is available in the database it detects the owner and other information.
With this information in the database, a user can easily check with the front end if it is available. Our project opens room for improvement since so far there have been no project that updates the database all by itself. Our project has some capability of updating the database by itself and that is the key thing that is unique in the system.
System and Work Outline
The things to be done include the research, analysis, and implementation of the project.
Unit
How
Why
Research
The research will be done by the collection of materials relating to the project. These materials will be sourced from the internet with a key word like number plate and car tracking. The researched documentation will be screened, and the important ones be used in the analysis unit.
The reason for the research is to we have developed a more different solution from the common ones and help in noting the steps followed by the other researchers.
Analysis
The analysis involved performing proper background studies on the research topic using the research documents at hand.
Analysis part will help in answering problems like knowing the importance of the system and where it has been previously used and by who.
Implementation
Implementation involves implementing the system used in car number plate system. The language proposed include MSSQL, Android and Java.
Implementation is the coding of the software. Coming up with the prototype design that can be used in a real-life situation.
Report
The report is the project research and write-up. This is simply done by typing.
To help the users of the system to understand the prototype well.
Risk Analysis
Significant potential hazards and how they will be managed.
Risk
Severity
Likelihood
Action
Software choice
High
Medium
App development is based around the software being used during the development progress. we will make sure to choose the correct methods to gain traction of the technology.
Cost Risks
Medium
Medium
This is the major limiting factor in the project. we will use the premium software’s which are constantly. We will solve it by looking for free sources and software tools that are available for students.
Implementation time taken
Medium
High
Starting as early as possible. Having a plan in place that will insure delivering on time.
Cross-platform compatibility
High
High
Might find it hard to get the application to work across-platforms, therefore we will ensure the compliant-standards are met, not forgetting the optimisation of the project with major combinations to allow the use on different devices.
Modules and their Description
The system comprises of 3 major modules with their sub-modules as follows:
Admin
Manage User
– Add/Update/Delete/View
– Add/Update/Delete/View vehicle Details (infringement)
– Update Blacklist or not
Manage Police
– Add/Update/Delete/View
Manage Laws
– Add/Update/Delete/View
– Details & Fine
View Fines
– List of Users & fines
Blacklisted Log
– List of blacklisted cars spotted
Notification
– Notify when a blacklist car is spotted with details
Police
Login
Change Password
Home
– Scan a vehicle/manually search a vehicle
– Owner details
– Vehicle details
– Check past Offences
– Raise a ticket by selecting the Offence.
View Laws
User
Login
Change Password
My Cars
– List of vehicles
My Fines
– List of fines on my vehicles
– pay the fine (Dummy payment module)
View Laws
Existing System & Proposed System
Problem with current scenario
In Existing system, if a person needs any relevant information regarding any vehicle, then he/she will have to go to that concern office and fill up a lot of forms and details are found manually and then they are able to collect information.
While handling so many cases regarding vehicle malpractices becomes very difficult to handle by police, also the work carried out for these cases become very difficult and sometimes remain unsolved.
You need to go through a lot of paperwork and hard work for retrieving the vehicle details which is the first step to go through in the existing vehicle recognition system.
The existing system faces many other issues like it becomes very tough to manage the details of blacklisted vehicles and when the number of cars increases it becomes tougher manually.
Adding and removing fines to the blacklisted cars is a difficult task as it takes a lot of hard work and paperwork.
Existing system has a very major issue of time as it is very difficult to predict the processing time of task.
The office has a multiple database to collect information about the cars owners, it is time consuming when someone is trying to find information (such as black list)
Excessive use of paper and manpower to display the information of the car users.
Drawbacks of the existing system
Maintenance of the system is very difficult.
There is a possibility for getting inaccurate results.
User friendliness is very less.
It consumes more time for processing the task.
Security is comparatively less.
Leak of personal information.
Risk of losing the information as it is not in one place.
wasting human resources (paper-time).
Issues & How to Approach It
Plate detection systems are faced by several challenges and similarly the system and research are faced with several issues. The system is interacting with large number of plates. Some of these plates might not be clear enough for the system to effectively detect.
The other main challenge posed to the system is the quality an image has. Different images have different quality. During the time of image capturing by the phone, the weather might be rainy, and the Camera is not able to take a good image. Also issues on the quality of camera used by the user is another thing to consider. When the image is poor, the app is not able to effectively understand and outline to digits on the image.
Another issue is collecting personal data and the implementation of these information in the actual database.
The approach used in the analysis and research is the quantitative data analysis of the collected materials to help in performing the research. The data will be taken from the data.gov and other sources which are common. We will also reference the already performed research to ensure that the research is done properly.
The database information will be collected and filled manually, it is time consuming, but once it is done it will be much worth it & easier for the user to find all the details, they need in one place.
Using the quantitative data gathered we will be able to understand and analyze the information to arrive to the importance of vehicle tracking systems that have been already implemented.
However, some of the information has been requested from the hospital carpark management team and will be used in the project. But to protect the personal details, the app will not be lunched online until it has been reviewed by the IT department in the hospital and all the security measures are in place.
PROPOSED SYSTEM
Considering the anomalies in the existing system computerization of the whole activity is being suggested after initial analysis.
The android application is developed using Android Studio with JAVA as a programming language.
Proposed system is accessed by three entities namely, Admin, Police and User.
Admins need to login with their valid login credentials first to access the android application.
After successful login, admin can access all the modules and perform/manage each task accurately.
Admin can perform task such as
Manage User – where Add, Update, Delete and View the users.
Add, Update, Delete and View vehicle Details (infringement)
Update Blacklist or not
Manage Police – Add, Update, Delete and View police.
Manage Laws – Add, Update, Delete and View the Laws
Details & Fine.
View Fines – list of Users & fines.
Blacklisted Log – list of blacklisted cars spotted.
Notification – Notify when a blacklist car is spotted with details.
Police can perform task such as
Login into the system.
Police can change their Passwords.
In the Home section police can Scan a vehicle or manually search a vehicle
Police can view owner details.
Police can view vehicle details.
Check Past Offences.
Raise a ticket by selecting the Offence.
View Laws
User can perform task such as
Login into the System.
Change Password.
My Cars – where the user can view list of vehicles.
My Fines – where the user can view list of fines on their vehicles.
User can also pay the fines for their blacklisted cars.
View Laws- where user can view the laws.
Gantt Chart
Project Lifecycle Details
Waterfall Model

Description
The waterfall Model is a linear sequential flow. In which progress is seen as flowing steadily downwards (like a waterfall) through the phases of software implementation. This means that any phase in the development process begins only if the previous phase is complete. The waterfall approach does not define the process to go back to the previous phase to handle changes in requirement. The waterfall approach is the earliest approach that was used for software development.
PROJECT DESIGN
E-R Diagram
Gender
Name
Pass
User
needs
Address
Register
Login
Mobile No.
Password
Police_id
Provides
Access
Login
Email id
Access
User id
Car recognition
Login
Password
Manage user.
Pass
Admin_id
Manage Police
Logout
Manage Laws
View fines
My fine
Blacklisted log
My cars
View laws
Home
Notification
Use Case Diagram
Admin: –
Police: –
User: –
Sequence Diagram
Admin: –
Police: –
User: –
Activity Diagram
Admin: –
Police: –
User: –
Class Diagram
User
– User_id : String
– Password : String
+ Login ()
+ Logout ()
New Registration
– Name : String
– DOB : Int
– Gender : String
– Address : String
– Mobile No. : Int
– Email id : String
– User id : String
– Password : String
+ Submit ()
+ btn_Click ()
+ Login ()
+ Logout ()
-Police_id: String
-Password: String
POLICE
ADMIN
– Admin_id : String
– Password : String
+ Login ()
+ Logout ()
Data Flow Diagram (DFD’s)
A data flow diagram is graphical tool used to describe and analyze movement of data through a system. These are the central tool and the basis from which the other components are developed. The transformation of data from input to output, through processed, may be described logically and independently of physical components associated with the system. These are known as the logical data flow diagrams. The physical data flow diagrams show the actual implements and movement of data between people, departments, and workstations. A full description of a system consists of a set of data flow diagrams. Using two familiar notations Yourdon, Gane and Sarson notation develops the data flow diagrams. Each component in a DFD is labeled with a descriptive name. Process is further identified with a number that will be used for identification purpose. The development of DFD’s is done in several levels. Each process in lower-level diagrams can be broken down into a more detailed DFD in the next level. The lop-level diagram is often called context diagram. It consists a single process bit, which plays vital role in studying the current system. The process in the context level diagram is exploded into other process at the first level DFD.
The idea behind the explosion of a process into more process is that understanding at one level of detail is exploded into greater detail at the next level. This is done until further explosion is necessary, and an adequate amount of detail is described for analyst to understand the process.
Larry Constantine first developed the DFD as a way of expressing system requirements in a graphical from, this led to the modular design.
A DFD is also known as a “bubble Chart” has the purpose of clarifying system requirements and identifying major transformations that will become programs in system design. So, it is the starting point of the design to the lowest level of detail. A DFD consists of a series of bubbles joined by data flows in the system.
DFD SYMBOLS:
In the DFD, there are four symbols:
A square defines a source(originator) or destination of system data.
An arrow identifies data flow. It is the pipeline through which the information flows.
A circle or a bubble represents a process that transforms incoming data flow into outgoing data flows.
An open rectangle is a data store, data at rest or a temporary repository of data.
Process that transforms data flow. Source or Destination of data
Data flow
Data Store
CONSTRUCTING A DFD:
Several rules of thumb are used in drawing DFD’s:
Process should be named and numbered for an easy reference. Each name should be representative of the process.
The direction of flow is from top to bottom and from left to right. Data traditionally flow from source to the destination although they may flow back to the source. One way to indicate this is to draw long flow line back to a source. An alternative way is to repeat the source symbol as a destination. Since it is used more than once in the DFD it is marked with a short diagonal.
When a process is exploded into lower-level details, they are numbered.
The names of data stores and destinations are written in capital letters. Process and dataflow names have the first letter of each work capitalized.
A DFD typically shows the minimum contents of data store. Each data store should contain all the data elements that flow in and out.
Questionnaires should contain all the data elements that flow in and out. Missing interfaces redundancies and like is then accounted for often through interviews.
SAILENT FEATURES OF DFD’s
The DFD shows flow of data, not of control loops and decision are controlled considerations do not appear on a DFD.
The DFD does not indicate the time factor involved in any process whether the data flows take place daily, weekly, monthly, or yearly.
The sequence of events is not brought out on the DFD.
TYPES OF DATA FLOW DIAGRAMS
Current Physical
Current Logical
New Logical
New Physical
CURRENT PHYSICAL:
In Current Physical DFD process label include the name of people or their positions or the names of computer systems that might provide some of the overall system-processing label includes an identification of the technology used to process the data. Similarly, data flows and data stores are often labelling with the names of the actual physical media on which data are stored such as file folders, computer files, business forms or computer tapes.
CURRENT LOGICAL:
The physical aspects at the system are removed as much as possible so that the current system is reduced to its essence to the data and the processors that transform them regardless of actual physical form.
NEW LOGICAL:
This is exactly like a current logical model if the user were completely happy with the functionality of the current system but had problems with how it was implemented typically through the new logical model will differ from current logical model while having additional functions, absolute function removal and inefficient flows recognized.
NEW PHYSICAL:
The new physical represents only the physical implementation of the new system.
RULES GOVERNING THE DFD’S
PROCESS
No process can have only outputs.
No process can have only inputs. If an object has only inputs than it must be a sink.
A process has a verb phrase label.
DATA STORE
Data cannot move directly from one data store to another data store, a process must move data.
Data cannot move directly from an outside source to a data store, a process, which receives, must move data from the source and place the data into data store.
A data store has a noun phrase label.
SOURCE OR SINK
The origin and /or destination of data.
Data cannot move direly from a source to sink it must be moved by a process.
A source and /or sink has a noun phrase land.
DATA FLOW
A Data Flow has only one direction of flow between symbols. It may flow in both directions between a process and a data store to show a read before an update. The later it usually indicated however by two separate arrows since these happen at different type.
A join in DFD means that the same data comes from any of two or more different processes data store or sink to a common location.
A data flow cannot go directly back to the same process it leads. There must be at least one other process that handles the data flow produce some other data flow returns the original data into the beginning process.
A Data flow to a data store means update (delete or change).
A data Flow from a data store means retrieve or use.
Data Flow Diagrams (DFD’s)
LEVEL 1 DFD
LEVEL 2 DFD: PREDICTION
System Architecture
After clicking on login button
On submitting valid data
If not registered
Logout
View laws
Home
Change password!
My fines
View laws
My cars
Change password!
Notification
Blacklisted log
Manage laws.
View fines
Manage police.
Manage user.
User login
Police Login
Admin login
Insert Registration details into database.
Login Page
(Id and password)
Homepage
Fill Registration details
Snapshots
PROJECT IMPLEMENTATION
Project Implementation Technology
The Project application is loaded in Android Studio. We used Android Studio for Design and coding of project. Created and maintained all databases into MSSQL, in that we create tables, write query for store data or record of project.
Hardware Requirement:
Laptop or PC
i3 Processor Based Computer or higher
1GB RAM
5 GB Hard Disk
Android Phone or Tablet
1.2 Quad core Processor or higher
1 GB RAM
Software Requirement:
Laptop or PC
Windows 7 or higher.
Android Studio
MSSQL
Android Phone or Tablet
Android v5.0 or Higher
OVERVIEW OF TECHNOLOGIES USED
Front End Technology
Introduction to Android
Android Studio is the official Integrated Development Environment (IDE) for Android app development, based on IntelliJ IDEA . On top of IntelliJ’s powerful code editor and developer tools, Android Studio offers even more features that enhance your productivity when building Android apps, such as:
A flexible Gradle-based build system
A fast and feature-rich emulator
A unified environment where you can develop for all Android devices.
Instant Run to push changes to your running app without building a new APK.
Code templates and GitHub integration to help you build common app features and import sample code.
Extensive testing tools and frameworks
Lint tools to catch performance, usability, version compatibility, and other problems.
C++ and NDK support
Built-in support for Google Cloud Platform, making it easy to integrate Google Cloud Messaging and App Engine.
Project Structure
Each project in Android Studio contains one or more modules with source code files and resource files. Types of modules include:
Android app modules
Library modules
Google App Engine modules
By default, Android Studio displays our project files in the Android project view, as shown in figure 1. This view is organized by modules to provide quick access to your project’s key source files.
All the build files are visible at the top level under Gradle Scripts and each app module contains the following folders:
manifests: Contains the AndroidManifest.xml file.
java: Contains the Java source code files, including JUnit test code.
res: Contains all non-code resources, such as XML layouts, UI strings, and bitmap images.
The Android project structure on disk differs from this flattened representation. To see the actual file structure of the project, select Project from the Project dropdown (in figure 1, it is showing as Android).
You can also customize the view of the project files to focus on specific aspects of your app development. For example, selecting the Problems view of your project displays links to the source files containing any recognized coding and syntax errors, such as a missing XML element closing tag in a layout file.
The User Interface
The toolbar lets you carry out a wide range of actions, including running your app and launching Android tools.
The navigation bar helps you navigate through your project and open files for editing. It provides a more compact view of the structure visible in the Project window.
The editor window is where you create and modify code. Depending on the current file type, the editor can change. For example, when viewing a layout file, the editor displays the Layout Editor.
The tool window bar runs around the outside of the IDE window and contains the buttons that allow you to expand or collapse individual tool windows.
The tool windows give you access to specific tasks like project management, search, version control, and more. You can expand them and collapse them.
The status bar displays the status of your project and the IDE itself, as well as any warnings or messages.
You can organize the main window to give yourself more screen space by hiding or moving toolbars and tool windows. You can also use keyboard shortcuts to access most IDE features.
At any time, you can search across your source code, databases, actions, elements of the user interface, and so on, by double-pressing the Shift key, or clicking the magnifying glass in the upper right-hand corner of the Android Studio window. This can be very useful if, for example, you are trying to locate a particular IDE action that you have forgotten how to trigger.
Tool Windows
Instead of using preset perspectives, Android Studio follows your context and automatically brings up relevant tool windows as you work. By default, the most used tool windows are pinned to the tool window bar at the edges of the application window.
To expand or collapse a tool window, click the tool’s name in the tool window bar. You can also drag, pin, unpin, attach, and detach tool windows.
To return to the current default tool window layout, click Window > Restore Default Layout or customize your default layout by clicking Window > Store Current Layout as Default.
To show or hide the entire tool window bar, click the window icon  in the bottom left-hand corner of the Android Studio window.
To locate a specific tool window, hover over the window icon and select the tool window from the menu.
Navigation
Here are some tips to help you move around Android Studio.
Switch between your recently accessed files using the Recent Files action. Press Control+E (Command+E on a Mac) to bring up the Recent Files action. By default, the last accessed file is selected. You can also access any tool window through the left column in this action.
View the structure of the current file using the File Structure action. Bring up the File Structure action by pressing Control+F12 (Command+F12 on a Mac). Using this action, you can quickly navigate to any part of your current file.
Search for and navigate to a specific class in your project using the Navigate to Class action. Bring up the action by pressing Control+N (Command+O on a Mac). Navigate to Class supports sophisticated expressions, including camel humps, paths, line navigate to, middle name matching, and many more. If you call it twice in a row, it shows you the results out of the project classes.
Navigate to a file or folder using the Navigate to File action. Bring up the Navigate to File action by pressing Control+Shift+N (Command+Shift+O on a Mac). To search for folders rather than files, add a / at the end of your expression.
Navigate to a method or field by name using the Navigate to Symbol action. Bring up the Navigate to Symbol action by pressing Control+Shift+Alt+N (Command+Shift+Alt+O on a Mac).
Find all the pieces of code referencing the class, method, field, parameter, or statement at the current cursor position by pressing Alt+F7.
Gradle Build System
Android Studio uses Gradle as the foundation of the build system, with more Android-specific capabilities provided by the Android plugin for Gradle. This build system runs as an integrated tool from the Android Studio menu, and independently from the command line. You can use the features of the build system to do the following:
Customize, configure, and extend the build process.
Create multiple APKs for your app, with different features using the same project and modules.
Reuse code and resources across source sets.
By employing the flexibility of Gradle, you can achieve all of this without modifying your app’s core source files. Android Studio build files are namedbuild. gradle. They are plain text files that use Groovy syntax to configure the build with elements provided by the Android plugin for Gradle. Each project has one top-level build file for the entire project and separate module-level build files for each module. When you import an existing project, Android Studio automatically generates the necessary build files.
Multiple APK Support
Multiple APK support allows you to efficiently create multiple APKs based on screen density or ABI. For example, you can create separate APKs of an app for the hdpi and mdpi screen densities, while still considering them a single variant and allowing them to share test APK, javac, dx, and ProGuard settings.
Debug and Profile Tools
Android Studio assists you in debugging and improving the performance of your code, including inline debugging and performance analysis tools.
Inline debugging
Use inline debugging to enhance your code walk-throughs in the debugger view with inline verification of references, expressions, and variable values. Inline debug information includes:
Inline variable values
Referring objects that reference a selected object.
Method returns values.
Lambda and operator expressions
Tooltip values
Performance monitors
Android Studio provides performance monitors so you can more easily track your app’s memory and CPU usage, find deallocated objects, locate memory leaks, optimize graphics performance, and analyze network requests. With your app running on a device or emulator, open the Android Monitor tool window, and then click the Monitors tab.
Allocation tracker
Android Studio allows you to track memory allocation as it monitors memory use. Tracking memory allocation allows you to monitor where objects are being allocated when you perform certain actions. Knowing these allocations enables you to optimize your app’s performance and memory use by adjusting the method calls related to those actions.
Code inspections
Whenever you compile your program, Android Studio automatically runs configured Lint and other IDE inspections to help you easily identify and correct problems with the structural quality of your code.
The Lint tool checks your Android project source files for potential bugs and optimization improvements for correctness, security, performance, usability, accessibility, and internationalization.
Coding
FEASIBILITY REPORT
Feasibility Studyis a high-level capsule version of the entire process intended to answer several questions like: What is the problem? Is there any feasible solution to the given problem? Is the problem even worth solving? Feasibility study is conducted once the problem clearly understood. Feasibility study is necessary to determine that the proposed system is Feasible by considering the technical, Operational, and Economical factors. By having a detailed feasibility study the management will have a clear-cut view of the proposed system.
The following feasibilities are considered for the project to ensure that the project is variable, and it does not have any major obstructions. Feasibility study encompasses the following things:
Technical Feasibility
Economic Feasibility
Operational Feasibility
In this phase, we study the feasibility of all proposed systems, and pick the best feasible solution for the problem. The feasibility is studied based on three main factors as follows.
Technical Feasibility
In this step, we verify whether the proposed systems are technically feasible or not. i.e., all the technologies required to develop the system are available readily or not.
Technical Feasibility determines whether the organization has the technology and skills necessary to carry out the project and how this should be obtained. The system can be feasible because of the following grounds:
All necessary technology exists to develop the system.
This system is too flexible, and it can be expanded further.
This system can give guarantees of accuracy, ease of use, reliability, and the data security.
This system can give instant response to inquire.
Our project is technically feasible because, all the technology needed for our project is readily available.
Operating System: Windows 7 or higher, & Android v5.0
or Higher (For Android Devices)
Languages: JAVA
Database System: MS-SQL Server
Documentation Tool : MS – Word
Economic Feasibility
Economically, this project is completely feasible because it requires no extra financial investment and with respect to time, it is completely possible to complete this project in 6 months.
In this step, we verify which proposal is more economical. We compare the financial benefits of the new system with the investment. The new system is economically feasible only when the financial benefits are more than the investments and expenditure. Economic Feasibility determines whether the project goal can be within the resource limits allocated to it or not. It must determine whether it is worthwhile to process with the entire project or whether the benefits obtained from the new system are not worth the costs. Financial benefits must be equal or exceed the costs. In this issue, we should consider:
The cost to conduct a full system investigation.
The cost of h/w and s/w for the class of application being considered.
The development tools.
The cost of maintenance etc…
Our project is economically feasible because the cost of development is very minimal when compared to financial benefits of the application.
Operational Feasibility
In this step, we verify different operational factors of the proposed systems like manpower, time etc., whichever solution uses less operational resources, is the best operationally feasible solution. The solution should also be operationally possible to implement. Operational Feasibilitydetermines if the proposed system satisfied user objectives could be fitted into the current system operation.
The methods of processing and presentation are completely accepted by the clients since they can meet all user requirements.
The clients have been involved in the planning and development of the system.
The proposed system will not cause any problem under any circumstances.
Our project is operationally feasible because the time requirements and personnel requirements are satisfied. We are a team of four members, and we worked on this project for three working months.
TESTING
As the project is on bit large scale, we always need testing to make it successful. If each component work properly in all respect and gives desired output for all kind of inputs, then project is said to be successful. So, the conclusion is-to make the project successful, it needs to be tested.
The testing done here was System Testing checking whether the user requirements were satisfied. The code for the new system has been written completelyusing JAVA as the coding language and Android Studio as the interface for front-end designing. The new system has been tested well with the help of the users and all the applications have been verified from every nook and corner of the user.
Although some applications were found to be erroneous these applications have been corrected before being implemented. The flow of the forms has been found to be very much in accordance with the actual flow of data.
Levels of Testing
In order to uncover the errors, present in different phases we have the concept of levels of testing. The basic levels of testing are:
Client Needs Acceptance Testing
Requirements System Testing
Design Integration Testing
Code Unit Testing
A series of testing is done for the proposed system before the system is ready for the user acceptance testing.
The steps involved in Testing are:
Unit Testing
Unit testing focuses verification efforts on the smallest unit of the software design, the module. This is also known as “Module Testing”. The modules are tested separately. This testing carried out during programming stage itself. In this testing each module is found to be working satisfactorily as regards to the expected output from the module.
Integration Testing
Data can be grossed across an interface; one module can have adverse efforts on another. Integration testing is systematic testing for construction the program structure while at the same time conducting tests to uncover errors associated with in the interface. The objective is to take unit tested modules and build a program structure. All the modules are combined and tested as a whole. Here correction is difficult because the isolation of cause is complicate by the vast expense of the entire program. Thus, in the integration testing stop, all the errors uncovered are corrected for the text testing steps.
System testing
System testing is the stage of implementation that is aimed at ensuring that the system works accurately and efficiently for live operation commences. Testing is vital to the success of the system. System testing makes a logical assumption that if all the parts of the system are correct, then goal will be successfully achieved.
Validation Testing
At the conclusion of integration testing software is completely assembled as a package, interfacing errors have been uncovered and corrected and a final series of software tests begins, validation test begins. Validation test can be defined in many ways. But the simple definition is that validation succeeds when the software function in a manner that can reasonably expected by the customer. After validation test has been conducted one of two possible conditions exists.
One is the function or performance characteristics confirm to specifications and are accepted and the other is deviation from specification is uncovered and a deficiency list is created. Proposed system under consideration has been tested by using validation testing and found to be working satisfactorily.
Output Testing
After performing validation testing, the next step is output testing of the proposed system since no system could be useful if it does not produce the required output in the specified format. Asking the users about the format required by them tests the outputs generated by the system under consideration. Here the output format is considered in two ways, one is on the screen and other is the printed format. The output format on the screen is found to be correct as the format was designed in the system designed phase according to the user needs.
For the hard copy also, the output comes as the specified requirements by the users. Hence output testing does not result any corrections in the system.
User Acceptance Testing
User acceptance of a system is the key factor of the success of any system. The system under study is tested for the user acceptance by constantly keeping in touch with the prospective system users at the time of developing and making changes wherever required.
Test Cases
Registration:To begin with login, user need to register by filling up basic registration details. There are multiple fields in registration page and every field must fill by user. User cannot use character in the login id field.
Login: – Login id and password are kept compulsory fields, and if the id or password does not match then it will show an error message.
VALIDATION CRITERIA
1.      In each form, no field which is not null able should be left blank.
2.      All numeric fields should be checked for non-numeric values. Similarly, text fields like names should not contain any numeric characters.
3.      All primary keys should be automatically generated to prevent the user from entering any existing key.
4.      Use of error handling for each Save, Edit, delete and other important operations.
5.      Whenever the user Tabs out or Enter from a text box, the data should be validated and if it is invalid, focus should again be sent to the text box with proper message.
Usability Testing:
Unmoderated remote usability testing:
It will occur remotely without moderator, it will offer a quick, robust, and inexpensive user testing results to be used for further analysis. The participants are asked to complete tasks using the application I have provided to order a drink using their own environment on their devices and I will be watching them take on the test and record al their actions and then return results.
This method will help to provide an initial moderated research.
It will provide details about the questions by observing the behavior of the users and their patterns of accessing the application.
Moreover, each user will get a form with variety of tasks to complete using the prototype to complete the final task, with an introduction to the main task.
I have updated the application “car recognition” which will allow the user to locate the details of the desired car in the car park and give them the option put the car in a blacklist, or it will display the information of the car on the screen allowing the user to contact the owner.
From there, the whole process could be done within minutes by couple clicks on their phone.
The application has different screens (user, police, admin) each screen has its own purpose to help the user get the best outcome from the application, while achieving their goal.
The tasks were:
The main task is to get familiar with the application and identify the car owner as fast as possible, after finishing all the side tasks below.
Lunch the application and login to each user.
Try to find 5 car owners’ details.
Put 5 cars in the black list.
Try to search a specific reg manually x5.
Try to change at least one setting inside the application.
Add a new user.
Go to the help page and read the information.
Check if the social media link is working.
Add new police.
Read the terms and conditions.
I had 5 users participating in the testing sessions, each of them had a different result stated below:
(time, actions, number of tasks completed, comments)
User 1: (9:30sec, the user was trying to find bugs in the application by opening and closing different screen, 8/10, straight forward to get you order)
User 2: (7:20min, not much going on with the user as he was just getting the location and the order he wanted from the app, 8/10, not hard to find the stores location as the application helps to identify the locations)
User 3: (11:40sec, the user spends a good minute on the orders screen trying to decide what to order, 10/10, he liked the overall design and wasn’t impressed with the variety of the orders.)
User 4: (10:50, the user was focused on finishing the tasks and taking one of the deals, 10/10, she Liked the overall design and app layout and would like to see more improvement on the menu)
User 5: (11:25, the user was a bit concerned about the menu prices, 10/10, she Liked the colors and the design of the menu screen)
Each of the users had a positive and negative comment on my application which I will take into consideration and implement them into the final design as this will help to improve the application and hopefully the users will get a better experience next time.
The Test Forms:
User1: John

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Strongly agree

Strongly disagree

1
2
3
4
5
1.
Overall, I am satisfied with how easy it is to use this system

x

2.
It was simple to use this application.

x

3.
I was able to complete the tasks and scenarios quickly using this system

x

4.
I felt comfortable using the app

x

5.
It was easy to learn to use the system

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X

6.
Whenever I made a mistake using the system, I could recover easily and quickly

X

7.
The information provided such as help and location were clear and understandable.

x

8.
the interface of the application was pleasant

X

9.
This system has all the functions and capabilities I expect it to have

X

10.
The information was effective in helping me complete the tasks and scenario.

x

User2: Belly

Strongly agree

Strongly disagree

1
2
3
4
5
1.
Overall, I am satisfied with how easy it is to use this system

x

2.
It was simple to use this application.

x

3.
I was able to complete the tasks and scenarios quickly using this system

x

4.
I felt comfortable using the app

X

5.
It was easy to learn to use the system

X

6.
Whenever I made a mistake using the system, I could recover easily and quickly

x

7.
The information provided such as help and location were clear and understandable.

x

8.
the interface of the application was pleasant

X

9.
This system has all the functions and capabilities I expect it to have

x

10.
The information was effective in helping me complete the tasks and scenario.

X

User3: Zak

Strongly agree

Strongly disagree

1
2
3
4
5
1.
Overall, I am satisfied with how easy it is to use this system

x

2.
It was simple to use this application.

x

3.
I was able to complete the tasks and scenarios quickly using this system

X

4.
I felt comfortable using the app

x

5.
It was easy to learn to use the system

x

6.
Whenever I made a mistake using the system, I could recover easily and quickly

X

7.
The information provided such as help and location were clear and understandable.

X

8.
the interface of the application was pleasant

x

9.
This system has all the functions and capabilities I expect it to have

x

10.
The information was effective in helping me complete the tasks and scenario.

x

User4: Paula

Strongly agree

Strongly disagree

1
2
3
4
5
1.
Overall, I am satisfied with how easy it is to use this system

X

2.
It was simple to use this application.

X

3.
I was able to complete the tasks and scenarios quickly using this system

X

4.
I felt comfortable using the app

X

5.
It was easy to learn to use the system

x

6.
Whenever I made a mistake using the system, I could recover easily and quickly

X

7.
The information provided such as help and location were clear and understandable.

X

8.
the interface of the application was pleasant

x

9.
This system has all the functions and capabilities I expect it to have

x

10.
The information was effective in helping me complete the tasks and scenario.

x

User5: Mill

Strongly agree

Strongly disagree

1
2
3
4
5
1.
Overall, I am satisfied with how easy it is to use this system

X

2.
It was simple to use this application.

x

3.
I was able to complete the tasks and scenarios quickly using this system

X

4.
I felt comfortable using the app

X

5.
It was easy to learn to use the system

x

6.
Whenever I made a mistake using the system, I could recover easily and quickly

X

7.
The information provided such as help and location were clear and understandable.

x

8.
the interface of the application was pleasant

X

9.
This system has all the functions and capabilities I expect it to have

X

10.
The information was effective in helping me complete the tasks and scenario.

x

ADVANTAGES OF PROJECT
This newly car Recognition system does not require any manual work or going to the concerning office, instead it will reduce the work level for getting the data related to any vehicle.
This android based Car Recognition system reduces the load and makes the way easy for storing all the relevant details regarding cars at a particular server and access it in one click whenever needed.
The status of the vehicle can be easily updated as soon as fine has been paid unlike existing system.
It reduces the time, effort, and cost of manually handling cases related to cars.
Easy management of car owner’s details and the fines for their respected cars are also managed well.
Details of blacklisted cars can be easily fetched by the system and fine can be easily added to it without any effort.
An application is reliable since it can be accessed in a remote location by the customer who wish to check the vehicle specs.
Azure database allows multiple users to access the database at the same time.
A mobile app will have a much better security regarding the daily usage of any user.
Limitations & Key Problems
For a successful project, the implementation needs to overcome some challenges:
Privacy: – It is true that records and images are stored and kept but it leads to some issues related to privacy. Usually, people are worried that the information of their cars might be misused which are scanned. It can get into wrong hands or be subject to data thefts, but experts claim that car recognition does not infringe the privacy of anyone. Car Recognition is for police needs as they are issued for public safety. In addition, this system checks every car automatically and it does not involve any discrimination.
The ability of the user to login in (This is both for the normal user and the admin. They should be different accounts). The ability of the system to allow large data upload and display. The security bit of the system. The database should be highly secure from the perpetrators.
Now, that we are going to use Java in the design, most perpetrators target it due to the ability to interact with the database using the data manipulation languages. (DML). SQL Injection attacks is a common thing to databases.
Designing an app that will allow the user to interact with the system easily and offer a clear & decent architecture that will make the application flowless.
Delivering the whole project in time, considering the amount of time needed to develop the app and implement the appropriate testing plan.
Extreme weather can affect the accuracy: – Hindrances and extreme weather conditions can affect the accuracy of car recognition software. Manned surveillance would be required because automatic recognition systems might not work.
Pursuit speed is one of the major barriers to computer performance, and it is driven by two things: ever-increasing data and limited hardware resources. In the age of Big Data and Internet of Things today we photograph in both directions. Fortunately, we excel in computer delivery and collaboration, but the need for green motion at the algorithm level never ends. If we can do our instructions quickly and get the most out of our expensive hardware that will always be a good thing.
There are many fast algorithms to help in increasing the speed. Some rely on relation in the environment, while some are moderate. We will look at all the design options, method selection and release details. My background and experience are largely based on usability and overall usage, so this will be a general focus area.
Our protocol law aims to answer the question: “There is no work without quantity.” We should not try to speed up without first measuring and determining the current performance of the algorithm, without finding out where it uses the most time. The algorithm is very difficult to install properly when it spends most of its time.
By writing well-prepared code for this special case, we were able to avoid slowing down the processor parallel to the processor, we got about 20% of the total performance, which is no small matter when it takes several days to run. There is no way to get this sync time without printing the code. The fact that the design is well done is a big topic, which we will explain later.
Features
Load Balancing:
Since the system will be available only the admin logs in the amount of load on server will be limited to time of admin access.
Easy Accessibility:
Records can be easily accessed and store and other information, respectively.
User Friendly:
The website/application will be giving a very user-friendly approach for all users.
Efficient and reliable:
Maintaining all secured and database on the server which will be accessible according to the user requirement without any maintenance cost will be a very efficient as compared to storing all the customer data on the spreadsheet or in physically in the record books.
Easy maintenance:
Car Recognition is design as easy way. So, maintenance is also easy.
Potential Ethical or Legal Issues
The system does not pose many legal and ethical issues.
The only issue that may be related to the system is personal information exposure. The system will need the database to be fed with information pertaining the owner of the vehicle. And for this reason, it might not be safe enough to guarantee the safety of personal data. This issue lies under the ethical issues with the system:
Copyrights: there are several laws to protect the developers from getting their work stolen or copied by others, that is why the app should be registered and sold to a company “app store” to protect the data from getting breached by others.
Privacy policy: as the project is based around collecting data and personal information, while feeding it to the main server & database. It will most likely be subject to privacy laws and regulation, that will demand a secure system implemented to protect personal information.
App Store Agreements: potentially when a company accept our project, they will have to think about the app store policies, and how the app will perform on the platform and category that it will be put in. while it is important to review the terms carefully, in most cases they are negotiable.
Employability Contribution
This project is highly employable in the industries. It can help in tracking their vehicles. Assume a car leasing company or a shipping company. The company needs to have a centralized car monitoring system where the admin can easily get the information pertaining a car.
Any company that has been struggling with car parking, will consider my project to be a solution for the problem, as it will give them the flexibility in allocating cars and displaying its information within matter of seconds.
CONCLUSION
This was our project of System Design about “Car Recognition” developed in Android as well as web application based on Java programming language. The Development of this system takes a lot of efforts from us. We think this system gave a lot of satisfaction to all of us. Though every task is never said to be perfect in this development field even more improvement may be possible in this application. We learned so many things and gained a lot of knowledge about development field. We hope this will prove fruitful to us.
The project was a success and all aspects necessary were addressed in the design. Even though there are still some units that might have needed some improvement, the project complexion was successful. License plate systems based on the method and the algorithms we used are more different from the common ones. HOG feature is something that many users have been integrating and using only as an independent method. We were able to integrate other methods in our project to ensure that there is proper addressing of the simple units in the number plate. This includes thorough binary level detection analysis.
This program uses image processing methods to test a vehicle from a computer store database. The system works satisfactorily with different conditions and different types of number plates. This program is used in medals and is implemented and tests the effect on real images. The ANPR system is working well, but there is still room for improvement.
ANPR can speed up the process with a high-resolution camera. He can take clear pictures of the car. The OCR method is sensitive to different sizes and shapes, so different types of temples will have to be designed for different RTO specifications. Statistical analysis can be used to describe the possibilities of finding and identifying a vehicle number plate. Currently there are some restrictions on parameters like car speed, car number script, image curve, which can be removed by constantly improving the instructions.
Today, advanced technologies have made it difficult to install point-to-point number verification (ANPR) systems, taking the most expensive, stable-based mobile systems, using the “point-to-shoot” method. This has been made possible by the introduction of inexpensive PC-based and unused software where there is no need to provide pre-defined guidance, angles, speed, and size when delivering the plate to my view. The small, long-lasting processor that can be installed in police vehicles allows speed-licensed plate-reading portable cameras to move around the law every day for the benefit of real-time plate authentication.
There has been a lot of research on getting plates and licenses. There have been several processes done to ensure we have the plate numbers. In the same country also the license plate varies depending on the province and the type of license. However, the activities desired to obtain and identify a UK license plate have not yet received the attention it deserves in the literature. This is due to the different types of UK license plates [43]. The identification of the UK car plate poses an important problem due to its distinctive character. The proposed method was tested on 200 previous photos of the UK national plate. A high degree of accuracy has been achieved to demonstrate the importance of this method. This study can also be tested in Middle Eastern countries.
This study, based on the combination of results, provides the final approach to LPR, making good use of chronological data. Tests show that the split LPR system is robust with varying brightness, rotation, opacity, and opacity image. In addition, the combination of authenticity results will eliminate some misconceptions and bring more accurate results. It also shows that our system exceeds the open source and complex solutions that are available for most information when GPUs are not available. Adjustment speeds match when used on, and our solution is easy to apply to GPUs.
In short, our approach to real-time traffic shooting is also possible and accurate, which will be used effectively on international intersections or on city traffic monitoring videos without electric police.
We utilized well the Mean-Shift method in our binary level and filtration of the blur-images were handled perfectly. Segmenting the characters was easily done with the methods that have been updated.
BIBLIOGRAPHY
Websites
en.wikipedia.org
Microsoft Developer Network (MSDN): http://msdn2.microsoft.com/en-us/default.aspx: This is a valuable online resource and is a must for any developer using Microsoft tools.
http://www.asp.net/: This is the official Microsoft ASP.NET web site. It has a lot of tutorials, training videos, and sample projects.
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/329906346_Review_of_car_make_model_recognition_systems
https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/8275893
https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-642-30223-7_1
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