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©ACU 2021 1
BIOL121 ASSIGNMENT 3: Written assessment
Due date:
Length and/or format:
Tuesday 8th June 2021 4.00pm
1200-word written essay
The essay allows you to demonstrate your integrated knowledge of
the anatomical and physiological workings of the healthy human
Choose ONE of the three scenarios provided.
Carefully read all materials provided for your chosen scenario.
Use the Word template provided to complete your essay on your chosen
scenario. You will need to research the topic beyond your lecture and
workshop material. It is highly recommended that you start with the
Include in text citations in your essay and a reference list at the end.
How to submit: Submit online through the Turnitin link provided on LEO.
For submission please name the file with your student number and case
study topic e.g. S00123456_JANE
Important to note:
You MUST write an essay and your answers MUST relate to the person in your chosen scenario.
• This assessment involves addressing a series of topics in the form of an essay. The topics
relate directly to the scenarios presented.
• Your discussion must be specific for the person in your chosen scenario, marks will not be
given where your essay does not relate to the person in the scenario.
• The topics addressed in your chosen scenario must be integrated into an essay, which
should include an appropriate introduction and conclusion.
• You can present the information in the order that you feel flows best; you don’t have to
present it in the order the topics are listed.
• Your discussion of key points must be incorporated into sentences and paragraphs that
include facts from your chosen scenario. If presented in question-answer style no marks will
be given for quality of essay.
The purpose of this assessment is for you to demonstrate your knowledge and understanding of
NORMAL anatomy and physiology.
• Do not become distracted describing pathophysiological changes
• Do not simply list clinical signs and symptoms.
• Ensure you adequately explain relevant underlying anatomy and physiology.
©ACU 2021 2
Case Study: Raymond
Raymond is a 52yo male office worker who lives alone. He has come to see his GP today for a check-up. It
has been some time since Raymond attended the clinic and you note when weighing him that he has gained
a significant amount of weight, and he doesn’t present as the fit athletic person that you remember. He
mentions that he doesn’t cook much and relies on the take-away shop around the corner for most of his
food these days.
He tells you that he is very happy, having just returned from a trip to Cusco, Peru (3400 m above sea level)
with his new girlfriend. While he thoroughly enjoyed the trip, he did mention that he found it more difficult
than normal to breathe there and that his knee joint pain has flared up again. His relationship with his
girlfriend has developed quickly and they are both keen to start a family. However, Raymond reports some
‘difficulty performing’ and they have not been successful in conceiving yet. Raymond thought it was his
prostate giving him trouble, but with urging from his girlfriend he bought some Viagra nasal spray over the
Physical examination:
173 cm
92 kg
Clean, dry skin, significant weight gain
Blood work
Blood type = A+
Fasting BGL = 7.2 mmol/L
TSH = 1.2 mU/L
Blood Testosterone levels = 154 ng/dL
GnRH = low
80 bpm
130/90 mm Hg
Respiratory rate
16 bpm
Low fibre, high fat
Past patient history
Knee joint pain from previous injury
Social status
Living at home, sexually active




Specific Gravity
©ACU 2021 3
All topics and their key points listed below need to be discussed in your essay
Topic 1: Respiratory (8 marks total)
Describe the changes in volume and pressure that will be occurring in Raymond’s chest cavity to achieve
inhalation while hiking through the mountains around Cusco. Explain why these changes are occurring, and
the effect upon airflow. (5 marks)
Describe the gas exchange occurring between air in Raymond’s alveoli and his pulmonary blood. Discuss how
the rate of gas exchange was affected when Raymond was in Cusco at high altitude compared to sea level. (3
Topic 2: Cardiovascular (5 marks total)
Consider Raymond’s blood pressure measurement and discuss whether the mean arterial pressure is likely
to be varied from normal. In your discussion you must include (a) reference to a change in vessel diameter
with age and (b) explain whether the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system or natriuretic peptides will
dominate to correct Raymond’s blood pressure. Explain the role of your chosen system in blood pressure
homeostasis. (5 marks)
Topic 3: Reproduction (10 marks total)
Raymond and his girlfriend are keen to start a family but have had no success so far.
Considering Raymond’s blood test results, indicate whether there is need for further investigation. Your
discussion should include the homeostatic regulation of male reproductive physiology and the relevant
glands, cells, and hormones. (10 marks)
Topic 4: Pharmacology (7 marks total)
Raymond has indicated that he is using Viagra nasal spray.
Discuss the route of administration, how the drug is likely to be absorbed after administration, and its likely
bioavailability. Justify your response by discussing whether the drug would be subjected to hepatic first pass.
(4 marks)
Discuss the importance of the half-life of a drug. Assuming there is 100% absorption, and the half-life of
Viagra is 4 hours, calculate the % of drug that is likely to be present in Raymond’s blood after 16 hours. (3

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