Bamboo is sustainable material

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Western SydneyUniversityBond Between Bamboo Reinforcement andConcreteBibhav PokharelApril 2020AbstractBamboo is sustainable material and can be the best alternative to the steel whichemits a lot of carbon in the manufacturing process. Bamboo does not bond properlywith the concrete thus it decreases the load-carrying capacity of the concrete. First,this report discusses about the di↵erent factors that lower the bond strength. Then,di↵erent methods like the application of various adhesive and impermeable productsthat increase the bond by preventing the bamboo to absorb water are reviewed.Finally, the corrugation of bamboo to increase the friction and uniform distributionof shear force is also assessed.Signature: BPokharel Date: 04/10/20201Contents1 Background 12 Literature Review 13 Summary & Conclusions 61 BackgroundIn this century the use of steel as a reinforcement in the concrete has gained its peak.This, in turn, has put enormous pressure on the environment as the steel has a highcarbon emission rate and is limited in the resource. Therefore, finding a suitable replacement for steel is one of the great concerns among academics. Vegetable fibers, bamboo,timber, etc. are thought of as substitution, but among them, a bamboo is a suitable option. This is due to the fact that bamboo has huge economical benefit; bamboo attains itsfull growth within few months and gains its mechanical strength within a year(Ghavami,2005). Furthermore, it can be found in high number at both tropical and subtropicalregions.Agarwal et al. (2014) pointed out that the ultimate tensile strength of bamboois similar to the yield strength of the steel. Thus, due to these reasons bamboo as areinforcing material is an important field of study for improving sustainability. Ghavami(2005),Agarwal et al. (2014),Javadian et al. (2016), Khatib (2017) and many more havedone findings and tried to bolster the use of bamboo as a reinforcement material. This report underlines the discussion of the peer-reviewed paper by them. It can be summarizedfrom the articles that improving bond strength between concrete and the bamboo splintswill increase the load-carrying capacity of the Bamboo Reinforced Concrete(BRC). Thetreated bamboo splint performs better as reinforcement than the untreated one. Thus,the utmost priority should be given to improve bond strength. This paper discuss aboutthe ways the researcher used to improve the bond strength between the concrete and thebamboo splint.2 Literature ReviewThere are di↵erent factors that decrease the bond strength. One of the reason is durability.Ghavami (2005) has reviewed that timber is subjected to environmental degradation andis e↵ected by insects and moulds a↵ecting the durability. Moreover, the paper states thatthe durability depends upon the type of species, age, treatment and also the curing. Inaddition, the higher the starch and humidity level, higher is the insect attacks. Therefore,proper species of bamboo must be selected and the best way to treat and cure the bambooshould be determined. Higher the starch and humidity level, the higher is the insectattacks. The discussion of durability by Ghavami (2005) is given below:1. Drying of the bamboo is very important to increase the durability. If the humidity1is less than 15 percent, the bamboo is prone to mould attacks. This also relates tothe increase in physical and mechanical properties.2. Preservative treatment increases durability.3. Low alkali cement materials and chemical admixtures can also be usedFurther, another reason is the water absorption property. The bamboo absorbs waterfrom the cast concrete and put pressure upon the concrete( (Ghavami, 1995)as cited in(Khatib, 2017)). When the bamboo dries up and shrinks, the bamboo forms void betweenitself and the concrete, thus, decreasing the bond strength. Furthermore,decrease in thefriction due to the smooth bamboo skin lowers the bondage (Ghavami, 1995).According to Ghavami (2005), the best way to prevent the degradation of the bondstrength is to apply a thin layer of epoxy. As epoxy is very expensive, so asphalt paintsor bitumen can be used as an alternative. The bond strength due to the applicationof di↵erent water-proof materials is the high interest of the researcher in this field ofstudy. Ghavami (2005) has proposed roughening of the bamboo splints and applyingimpermeable product accompanying sand before being wrapped with 1.5mm wire at10mm distance. After that, the impermeable product should be applied again and sand ismanually pressed before leaving the product for 24h to dry. Then the bamboo splint is putinto a concrete cast and pullout test is conducted to find out the bond strength.Ghavami(2005) found out excessive improvement in bond strength(greater than 100 percent) andif the reinforcement ratio is used as 3 percent(ideal value), the load-carrying capacityincreases by 4 times than the untreated bamboo splint. The most updated pullout test isconducted by Khatib (2017).A machine called Instron 8033 servo-hydraulic fatigue testingmachine having 250KN was utilized in conducting the test at a rate of 1mm/min. Thedisplacement at the loaded and free ends was measured with the help of Linear Variabledisplacement transducers(LVDTs) (Khatib, 2017).The test setup is shown in Figure 1.Ghavami (2005) also stated that if the reinforcement is ideal and Sikadur 32 Gel is usedas an impermeable product, the result is as good as conventional steel reinforcementconcrete. The use of Sikadur 32 Gel as the adhesive is bolstered by Agarwal et al.(2014).This adhesive performed very well among others (Araldite, Araldite and bindingwire, Tapecrete P-151 and Anti Corr RC) in pull out test. The bond stress is calculatedfrom the equation:Tb = FSL (1)Where, F is pullout forceS is the perimeter of the bamboo stripL is the length of bonded interfaceThe bond strength of di↵erent treatments done by Agarwal et al. (2014) is shown in theTable 1.Agarwal et al. (2014) used Sikadur 32 Gel as a bamboo treatment in axial load test andtransverse load test on BRC columns and two-point load test on BRC beams. From theaxial load test, it can be summarized that the column having minimum steel reinforcement2Figure 1: pullout test used by Khatib (2017)can be compared with a bamboo reinforced column having 8% of reinforcement. Moreover, the treated bamboo reinforced column performs very well than untreated bambooreinforced columns. The experiment shows that the behaviour of plain concrete and untreated bamboo reinforced concrete has the same brittle characteristics, whereas treatedbamboo and steel-reinforced concrete shows similar ductility behaviour. From the transverse loading test, it can be stated that the weight carried by BRC column having 8%reinforcement is close enough to the weight carried by minimum reinforced column. Twopoint load test on beam shows that BRC beam having 140mm2 of reinforcement sustainsmore load than the steel-reinforced beam, having 2nos. of 8mm dia bar, before it fails(Agarwal et al., 2014).Agarwal et al. (2014) summarises that PCC and untreated BRC have brittle behaviourand displays a minimum warning before it fails, on the other hand, Sikadur 32-Gel treatedBRC is ductile and gives ample amount of time before it fails. Moreover, the paper showsthat BRC column having 8% of reinforcement can be compared with RCC column having0.89% reinforcement.Apart from the treatment, corrugation of a bamboo splint can improve the bond betweenthe bamboo and the concrete (Azadeh and Kazemi, 2014).The corrugation distributesthe load between the bamboo and concrete uniformly and the wedging e↵ect can also3Table 1: Bond strength for di↵erent treatments by Agarwal et al. (2014)Table 2: Bond strength for di↵erent treatments obtained by di↵erent researchers (Khatib,2017)4be lessened because the stress transition system between bamboo and concrete is altered.Furthermore, cost of coating bamboo splint with epoxy and other adhesive materials can also be saved(Khatib, 2017).Khatib (2017) has summarized bond strength resultfrom di↵erent research papers i.e Cox et al. (1970),Kute and Wakchaure (2013),Agarwalet al. (2014),Ghavami (1995) and Javadian et al. (2016) which is shown in Table 2.Khatib (2017) has used waterproof coating in addition to the corrugation to improve thebond strength. According to the paper, four patterns of corrugation was tested along withLinseed oil as impermeable product. Linseed oil is cheaper than other epoxy materialsand is found to be e↵ective when used with the corrugated bamboo splint. The result issimilar to the use of Sikadur32-Gel (Khatib, 2017).Khatib (2017) experiment uses Moso bamboo culm which is 3-4 years old. This bamboowas cut into 24 850mm long and 20-30mm wide splints. This splints resembled di↵erentcorrugation(each corrugation had three samples) and were cast into C35 concrete mix.Figure 2: General pattern of corrugated splints used by Khatib (2017)Figure 2 shows the notation i.e. A,B,C and P used to create four di↵erent corrugation.A, B, C, and P are the length of the groove, the distance between two grooves, center tocenter distance between grove and projection respectively. The experiment used 1mm and2mm of projection whereas 1:1,1.5:1 and 1:1.5 B: A ratio. When the compression forceis applied to the bamboo perpendicular to the fiber slippage occurs but this preventedby the projection. Despite this, if we use a large projection, there may be a decreasein the tensile capacity of the splint. Therefore the value must be nothing high thatdecreases the tensile strength and nothing low that causes slippage. To find this valuenumber of experiments must be done. The result of the experiment conducted by Khatib(2017) displays that corrugated bamboo treated with the oil having 2mm projection andB:A=1:1.5 has bond strength greater than one obtained from using Sikadur 32 Gel. Toconclude, the function of corrugation in the bamboo splint resembles the on achieved bythe grooves present in the steel reinforcement and it provides more bonding strength thanadhesives, epoxies and impermeable products. Therefore, the corrugated bamboo as areinforcement in concrete must be immensely studied.53 Summary & ConclusionsSteel as a reinforcement is putting enormous pressure upon the environment. This reportsuggests the use of bamboo as a possible replacement to minimize carbon emission dueto the steel. There is a number of researches dealing with the Bamboo Reinforced Concrete(BRC) but more focus should be given to bond strength between the bamboo splintand the concrete due to the fact that the low bondage decreases the load-carrying capacity of the concrete. From the literature review, it can be concluded that the corrugationof the bamboo splint along with the treatment of Linseed oil is one of the best methodsto increase the bond and the load-carrying capacity. It will be interesting to see how thecorrugated bamboo treated with Sikadur 32 Gel along with the application of the sandperforms against the pullout test.ReferencesAgarwal, A., Nanda, B., and Maity, D. (2014). Experimental investigation on chemicallytreated bamboo reinforced concrete beams and columns. Construction and BuildingMaterials, 71:610–617.Azadeh, A. and Kazemi, H. H. (2014). New approaches to bond between bamboo andconcrete. Key Engineering Materials, 600:69–77.Cox, F. B., McDonald, J. E., et al. (1970). Expedient reinforcement for concrete for usein southeast asia. report 3, additional tests of bamboo.Ghavami, K. (1995). Ultimate load behaviour of bamboo-reinforced lightweight concretebeams. Cement and Concrete Composites, 17(4):281–288.Ghavami, K. (2005). Bamboo as reinforcement in structural concrete elements. Cementand Concrete Composites, 27(6):637–649.Javadian, A., Wielopolski, M., Smith, I. F., and Hebel, D. E. (2016). Bond-behaviorstudy of newly developed bamboo-composite reinforcement in concrete. Constructionand Building Materials, 122:110–117.Khatib, H.-A. (2017). Corrugated bamboo as reinforcement in concrete. Proceedings ofthe Institution of Civil Engineers, 170(4):311–318.Kute, S. and Wakchaure, M. (2013). Performance evaluation for enhancement of someof the engineering properties of bamboo as reinforcement in concrete. Journal of TheInstitution of Engineers (India): Series A, 94(4):235–242.6

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