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University of Hertfordshire
Centre for Academic Skills Enhancement (CASE)
HBS Guide to Harvard Referencing

  This guide has been produced by CASE Academic Advisers to promote accurate Harvard referencing in the Hertfordshire Business School (HBS). Harvard referencing style has many varieties. This version has been developed to ensure conformity with the basic Harvard referencing conventions and in relation to feedback from HBS lecturers and students.      Accurate referencing is ESSENTIAL because: Your work must be ‘evidenced’ with references to appropriate academic theory and practitioner experience.Your reader must be able to see which ideas and words are your own and which are not.Your lecturer must be able to check your sources and see which ones you have used to support your assertions.Your lecturer needs to see if you have read and understood course material and how you have used the work of others to develop your own ideas.Other readers might want to find and read some of the sources you have used. 6)   If you do not reference, you might be accused of stealing the work/ideas of others – this is plagiarism.    
You should note that Harvard is a modern ‘author-date’ referencing system and should not be used in the same document with the older numerical /footnote systems that use numbers in the text and corresponding footnotes.
The Harvard referencing system requires referencing in two places in your work. First, you must give a partial reference within your work (referred to as an in-text citation or reference) and secondly, you must give a full reference in a final list of references.
In-text citation
Author/s surname/s (Year)…. or …..(Author/s surname/s, Year). e.g., Smith (2015) suggests that… OR It has been suggested (Smith, 2015) that…  
List of references
Author/s surname/s, initials. (Year) Title. Place of publication: Publisher. e.g., Smith, J. (2015) Business Studies. London: Pearson.  
You can reference ANY sources using Harvard – the rule is to always use the basic order of information given above. If you do not have any part of this information, you will have to leave it out and indicate that you do not have it. However, this should happen only rarely: you should always know who the author is, even if it is a corporate author rather than a specific person. For all your sources you should make sure you know the answers to the following questions:
Citing and Quoting
‘Citing’ means referring to an author’s work; this acts as your supporting evidence. ‘Quoting’ means using the author’s exact words in your writing. Generally, quoting is not recommended, but an example is given in this guide of how to correctly quote using the Harvard system.  
Key points for in-text citations
If you use the author as the subject of your sentence, put only the year in brackets.
e.g.  Fisher (2014) suggests motivation research should establish the personal constructs of employees.
If the author is not the subject or your sentence, put both the author and year in brackets with a comma to separate the two elements, and a full-stop outside the brackets to finish the whole sentence.
e.g. When researching employee motivation, personal constructs should be investigated (Fisher, 2014).
Primary and secondary sources
A primary source is the original source of information, e.g. the original experiment or report. A secondary source is when primary information is used or cited by another author. Ideally you should try to consult primary sources. 
Whether you use a primary or secondary source, the golden rule is to make clear which source you have actually read. If you use a secondary source, you must therefore use the phrase ‘cited in’ in your citation and references. Note that for HBS Harvard referencing, ‘in’ is used to indicate a chapter or article within a book and ‘cited in’ is generally used to indicate when one author is citing another.
Use of present tense to show attribution
As a general rule use the present tense, even when the reference is not a current one, because the concept(s) referred to by the author(s) were current when the source was originally published, e.g. Brown (2015) suggests that…
Difference between a list of References and a Bibliography
Your lecturer may ask you to give either or both of these at the end of your assignment, and they are similar in that they both use the Harvard system and have full references, listed in alphabetical order of the author(s) surname(s). However, References is NOT the same as Bibliography in terms of which sources you include:
References = a list of all the sources you have actually used and cited in your work. 
Bibliography = all the books and other sources of information that you have used as background reading for your assignment but have not used explicitly and so not cited in your work. Do not make a long Bibliography to impress; only include items that you think provide useful information for the reader.  
Punctuation and format for your list of References
Harvard has no one true style of punctuation and it is not prescriptive about punctuation, so you will see variations between different publishers and researchers, and slightly different conventions, even within this university. The style used in the examples below is recommended for HBS, after consultations with many subject staff over many years. The important thing is to be consistent. Students and lecturers should not be overly concerned with small variations in punctuation styles, for example, as long as the referencing is consistent in style. The generally accepted conventions are:
Author or authors’ names
Use the author’s surname/family/given name, followed by their initials only (not full first names).
Academic /professional titles (e.g. Dr.) should not be included but generational titles and Roman numerals in name titles are included (e.g. Junior, Senior, George V).
Titles of work
For books, book chapters and journal articles, capitalise only content words, not words such as and, but, the, unless it is the first word in the title, e.g.
Marketing In Travel And Tourism (X)
Marketing in Travel and Tourism (ü)
For journal, magazine and newspaper titles, keep the capitalisation as it appears in the publication. The HBS system uses the italics method for article and book titles, except in journals, where the name of the journal is italicised and the article title is put in single inverted commas. Some forms of Harvard underline the title, but you should not underline and italicise.
Page numbering
Books – page numbers are not usually needed in the final list of references. However, some tutors may require page numbers for certain types of writing, e.g. case studies. In this case, you use a colon to preface the page number, e.g. (Smith, 2014:33). In journals – page numbers appear as the final item of the citation, followed by a full stop. In the reference list, use the abbreviation ‘p.’ for one page and ‘pp.’ for a page range, e.g. pp.11-12.
Separating information elements
Use a full-stop after author initials, and also full-stops to separate the main information elements, apart from a book’s place of publication and publisher, which requires a colon: e.g.
Courtney, M. and Du, X. (2015) Study skills for Chinese students. London: Sage.
Note: there is no full stop after the publication year in brackets.
Other key points to remember
Variations. There are several variations of Harvard referencing so follow HBS Harvard version. The key point is that you should be consistent, using the same style and format throughout your work. Check with your lecturer if you are unsure about their requirements for small points of style or format.
Mixed systems.  Do not mix HBS Harvard with other referencing systems. Do not use numbering, footnotes, endnotes, or the abbreviations op. cit. or loc. cit. Also, HBS Harvard referencing does not use the Latin abbreviation ibid. for repeated in-text citations.
Full forms.  Always note the full details of any source when you read as they are more difficult to find later. Paraphrase, summarise or quote as you make your notes.
Two places. Check that you reference all sources used in two places: in-text and in your References. Do not include a citation (reference in-text) which is not in the list of References and vice versa.
Bibliographies. Sources that you read but have then not used or cited explicitly in your work would go in a Bibliography. Most HBS assignments require References and not Bibliographies.
Alphabetically. Both the list of References and Bibliography must be arranged alphabetically, according to author’s surname, and chronologically for several entries by the same author, latest entry first. 
Punctuation. Take care to use the correct punctuation, spacing and format (e.g. italics, inverted commas and full stops) for the different types of sources (e.g. books and journals). All titles of books, journals and newspapers are put in italics. Titles of articles, sections and chapters within journals and edited books are put in inverted commas ‘xxx’.
Electronic. If your source is an electronic version rather than a paper copy, you need to include:
  to show that you read it online instead of a hard copy, and give the
Available at:
URL (uniform resource locator)
[Accessed: date, month, year]
to give the day, month and year that you last accessed the web source.  
First names and surnames. First name initial/s should be used in the list of References (e.g. Hill, A.M.)  and not the first name/s in full (e.g. Hill, Andrew Mark.). Use the author’s correct surname. Sometimes it is easy to mistake family names for first names, e.g. Calvin Thomas (Both names could be first names).    
et al. Where there are two authors, give both names, joined by ‘and’; for three or more authors, use ‘et al.’ in-text, e.g. Smith et al. (2014). ‘et al.’ is an abbreviation for et alia (and others). It is used in formal writing to avoid a long list of names. Note the punctuation: there is usually no capitalisation and a full stop after ‘al.’
Large numbers of authors. Usually, the convention is that up to six authors may appear in a final list of References. If more, then list these authors and represent the rest by ‘et al.’ rather than write them out fully.
12.   Multiple references. If there is more than one reference to the same author and year, insert a, b, etc. in both the in-text citation and in References, e.g. Mintel, (2015a) Mintel, (2015b).
Series of in-text references. A series of references can be enclosed within a single pair of parentheses (brackets), separated by semicolons, ordered chronologically by date, latest first (Bryant, 2015; Courtney, 2014; McCauley, 2012) and alphabetically by author surnames in the references list.
Examples. Enclose any brief phrase associated with the reference within parentheses, e.g. several researchers have claimed this (see Fisher, 2004:151).
No author. You should always be able to find an author or copyright for the information. Look at the end of documents or bottom of a webpage. For apparently authorless articles, use the name of the magazine, journal, newspaper or sponsoring organisation, and not the title of the article.
Personal communications. Citations from personal communications are usually only included in the text and not in the Reference list.
Upper case. Names should be in upper and lower case and not all upper case.
Surnames. Surnames containing de, van, von, De, De la, Van, Von, etc. are listed under D and V respectively.
Same author. If two or more references by the same author are cited together, separate the dates with a comma. Start with the oldest publication (Bryant, 2010, 2011, 2012).
Same surname. When two references share the same surname, they should be positioned in the list of references in date order (e.g. Brown, G. (2014) before Brown, F. (2014)) When references contain two or more authors sharing the same surnames, reference in alphabetical order according to the second author’s name (e.g. Brown W., Hughes J., and Kent T. (2003) before Brown W., Kent T., and Lewis S. (2003)…)
Edition numbers. If available, put the edition of the book after the title of the book (e.g., 2nd edn.). Note that edn. is not normally capitalised.
Italics. It is common practice with Harvard to emphasise the title of the book or journal by using italics. When referencing journals, newsprint or webpages, put their title in italics and the title of the article in inverted commas.    
23. Cited in. If you are referring to an author cited by another author in a ‘secondary’ reference, use the phrase
      ‘cited in’ rather than just ‘in’.
24.  &/and. It is better style to use the full word ‘and’ rather than abbreviations.
25. Last author. There is no need to reverse the order of author’s names in a multi author reference. It is
       a convention used by some author date systems, but is not in HBS Harvard.
e.g.  Brown, G., Smith, T.W. and C. Green (2015) Business Organisation. London: Pearson. (x)
        Brown, G., Smith, T.W. and Green, C. (2015) Business Organisation. London: Pearson. (√)
26. Capitalisation. Only capitalise the first letter of each author’s surname and initial/s for each first name/s. Do not capitalise everything in a title.  Also capitalise the first letter of the publication title written in italics, the first letters of all main words in the title of a journal and all first letters of a place name and publisher.
27. Dates. As long as you are consistent, any UK form is acceptable: 30th June 2016, 30.6.2016, 30.06.16, etc.
28. Avoid over reference of a source. Be careful that you do not ‘over-reference’. It is good practice to draw from a variety of sources to summarise and to give evidence for what has happened over time (Mintel 2014, Hills 2015). However, a reference is not necessary when the summary is unlikely to be a cause of dispute or controversy, e.g.
Internet shopping is now become a major form of consumerism in the UK.  
London is the capital of England.
(This is an undisputed ‘correspondence’ fact, circulating freely in the public domain.)

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This guide gives examples of both in-text and final references for a wide variety of common resources. Follow these to create your own references using the correct HBS Harvard format. If you need to reference other types of information sources, and you cannot follow an example here, contact a CASE academic adviser for guidance: email: or visit the CASE office (M030) or Tel: 01707 281237 or 01707 281248  
Table of Contents
Book/s (hard copies) 8
1 One author 8
2 Two authors. 8
3 Several authors. 8
4 Edited book/Chapters of a book. 8
5 More than one book by the same author in the same year 9
6 Primary Source/Seminal Work/Reprint/Abridged Edition. 9
Journal/s (hard copies) 9
7 One author 9
8 Two authors. 9
9 Author citing another author 10
10 Two articles by the same author in the same year 10
Electronic / Online Sources. 10
11 e-Book. 10
12 Information Database – academic journals (e.g. found in Business Source Complete, Emerald, etc.) 10
13 Information Database – reports (e.g. Mintel) 11
14 e-Journal 11
15 Website Page – author known. 11
16 Organisation Website. 11
17 Multiple references to the same website. 12
18 Using an acronym to reference a website. 12
19 Author citing another author in an electronic newspaper, magazine or newsletter 12
20 Electronic Newspaper, Magazine or Newsletter – unspecified author 12
21 Bulletin Board. 13
22 Virtual Learning Environment (e.g. StudyNet) 13
23 Conference Proceedings – published on the Internet 13
24 DOI (Digital Object Indicator) 13
25 Online Image (e.g. each photo, drawing, graph, diagram, etc.) 14
26 YouTube Video (uploaded by self) 14
27 YouTube Video (uploaded on behalf of someone else) 14
28 iTunesU.. 14
29 Social Media Site (e.g. blog, wiki, internet forum, etc.) 15
30 Social Networking Site (i.e. Twitter, Weibo, Tumblr, etc.) 15
31 Facebook (Company or Group Page) 15
32 LinkedIn. 15
Government and Legal sources. 16
33 Government / EU Publication. 16
34 UK Government Statute (in hard copy) 16
35 National Archives – Crown Copyright (Online) 16
36  Legislation. 16
37 Case Law.. 16
Other Sources. 17
38 No Author (Anon.) 17
39 No Date (n.d.) 17
40 Page numbers and chapters. 17
41 Newspaper or Magazine Article – unspecified author (hard copy) 18
42 Newspaper or Magazine Article – specified author (hard copy) 18
43 Reference Material (e.g. dictionary, encyclopaedia) (hard copy) 18
44 Corporate Author (hardcopy) 18
45 Lecture Notes (e.g. PowerPoint slides, lecture hand-outs) 18
46 Personal Email/Skype Communication. 19
47 Unpublished Research Interview.. 19
48 Podcast (e.g. iPlayer, Studynet site, iTunesU) 19
49 Research Report 19
50 Full Conference Proceedings (hardcopy) 19
51 CD-ROM.. 20
52 Film (e.g. DVD, Video film) 20
53 Referencing a Guest Speaker 20
54 Research Report 20
55 In-house Publication (hard copy) 20
56 Thesis / Dissertation. 21
57 Translation (by a translator) 21
58 Translation (by a student, e.g. Lucy Zhao) 21
59 Encyclopaedia. 21
60 Exhibition Guide / Catalogue. 22
61 Tables and Figures. 22
62 Television. 22
63 Radio. 22
64 Quotation. 23
65 Quoting another student 23
66 Work in other languages. 23
Book/s (hard copies)
1 One author
In-text citation
As Soscia (2013) suggests, consumption behaviour is an important area for marketing research.  
Soscia, I. (2013) Emotions and Consumption Behaviour. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing.
2 Two authors
In-text citation 
Courtney and Du (2014) stress the universal aspects of academic skills requirements.
Courtney, M. and Du, X. (2014) Study skills for Chinese students. London: Sage.
3 Several authors
In-text citation
Mintzberg et al. (2003) discuss the issue in detail.
Mintzberg, H., Lampel, J., Quinn, J.B. and  Ghoshal, S. (2003) The Strategy Process: Concepts, contexts, cases. 2nd European edn. Harlow: Pearson Education/Prentice Hall.
Note: only use ‘et al.’ if there are three or more authors. ‘et al.’ is from the Latin phrase ‘et alia’ meaning ‘and others’ and as ‘al.’ is an abbreviation, it needs a full-stop.
Note: It is important to include the edition number (e.g. 2nd edn.) if a book has several reprints.
4 Edited book/Chapters of a book
These are books which consist of separate chapters by different authors, put together by an editor(s). You need to reference both the chapter author(s) and the editor(s).
 In-text citation
As Beechler and Javidan (2007, cited in Javidan et al. 2007) suggest, the term ‘globalisation’ has many definitions. 
Beechler, S. and Javidan, M. (2007) ‘Leading with a global mindset’. In Javidan, M., Hitt, A. and Steers, R. M. (eds.) (2007) Advances in International Management: The Global Mindset. Oxford: Elsevier.
Note: The title of the chapter is put in inverted commas, and the title of the book is put in italics. Indicate the editors with the abbreviation ‘ed.’ or ‘eds.’- lower case, with brackets.
5 More than one book by the same author in the same year
In-text citation
As Stevens suggests (2008a and 2008b),e-commerce business models must include the realisation that initially, transaction security is more important than market exposure.
Stevens, J. (2008a) E-commerce: The Future of Selling. London: Sage.
Stevens, J. (2008b) The Online Market Place. New York: Randall.
Note: use ‘a’ and ‘b’ alongside the year if there is more than one reference to the same author in the same year.
6 Primary Source/Seminal Work/Reprint/Abridged Edition
It is recommended to consult primary/original sources. Below, the original work has been abridged (shortened) by a later author.
In-text citation
Marx (1867) produced one of the most globally influential denunciations of mid-Victorian capitalist society. It has also proved to be one of the most influential works in the social sciences in the twentieth century and did for social science what Darwin had done for biology.
Marx, K. (1867) Capital: A Critique of Political Economy. Vol. I. The Process of Capitalist Production. Abridged edn. McLellan, D. (2008) Oxford: OUP.
Note: Use ‘cited in’ when you refer to ‘seminal’ (strongly influential) works e.g. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs (1943), Humphrey’s SWOT (1966), Porter’s Five Forces (1979) from secondary sources. See No 9, page 9.
Journal/s (hard copies)
Only the title of the journal is put in italics. However, the title of the article is put in inverted commas.  
7 One author
In-text citation
As O’Hara’s survey (2007) shows marketing microstructures are not well understood.
O’Hara, M. (2007) ‘Making Market Microstructure Matter’. Financial Management. 28(2) summer. pp. 83-91.
Note: ‘28’ indicates the volume number and ‘(2)’ indicates the edition number in that year. ‘pp.’ indicates the page range of the article within the journal.
8 Two authors
In-text citation  
Differing perceptions of organisational fairness provide grounds for resistant behaviour (Folger and Starbuck, 2002).
Folger, R. and Starbuck, D. (2002) ‘Constraints on Change’. Journal of Organisational Change Management. 12(1) pp. 34-45.
9 Author citing another author
In-text citation  
Current levels of competition demand that companies consider new ways of organising their accounting systems (Javier et al., 2005, cited in Poole et al., 2006).
Javier, M. and Corcoran, G. (2005) ‘Management  Accounting for Global Growth’. Financial Management. 12(2) pp. 18-26. Cited in Poole, A. M. and Roose, W. (eds.) (2006) Journal of Business Finance and Accounting. 33(10) pp.140-143.
Note:   Your reference list should contain complete details of ALL sources.  However, if you do not have the referencing details for Javier and Corcoran in the example above, it is acceptable to only reference the work that you have seen, in which case the final reference list entry would only be for Poole and Roose.
Using ‘Cited in’ shows that the journal article, which you actually read was that written by Poole and Corcoran.  If Javier and Corcoran had also cited an author (Author X), your in text reference entry would be: Author X (Year, Cited in Javier and Corcoran, 2005, Cited in Poole and Roose, 2006) but multiple source references are uncommon.
10 Two articles by the same author in the same year
In-text citation
Bryant’s research studies (1992a and 1992b) of the Samburu economy in Northern Kenya remain seminal works.
Bryant, T. (1992a) ‘Barter and hierarchy in Northern Kenya’. Proceedings of the First International Research Conference on African Nomads, 2006. 15 November. Nairobi. FIRCAN. pp. 25-48.
Bryant, T. (1992b) ‘Where there’s blood, there’s money’.  Ethnography Today. 2(3) pp.12-27.
Electronic / Online Sources
11 e-Book
In-text citation
Bowell and Kemp (2005) stress the importance of developing critical thinking in academic writing.
Bowell, T. and Kemp, G. (2005) Critical Thinking – a concise guide. 2nd edn. New York: Routledge [Online] Available at: [Accessed: 25 June, 2015].
Note: The addition of [Online] in the reference indicates that you used the online version and not the hard copy. However, if there is no hard copy of the book, you do not need to use [Online].
12 Information Database – academic journals (e.g. found in Business Source Complete, Emerald, etc.)
In-text citation
Macedo (2015) examines new ways of designing the structure of a manufacturing system.
Macedo, J. (2015) ‘Unified structural procedural approach for designing integrated manufacturing systems’. International Journal of Production Research. 45(17) pp. 356-378. Business Source Complete [Online] Available at: [Accessed: 25 June, 2015].
Note: When using a database, you should put the name of the database in the reference, as above.
13 Information Database – reports (e.g. Mintel)
In-text citation
A recent Mintel report (2015) shows the increasing popularity of smartphone and tablet gaming in the UK.
Mintel (2015) Smartphone and Tablet Gaming. Mintel. Available at: [Accessed: 25 June, 2015].
Note: For Mintel, you only need to cite ‘Mintel’, even if an author’s name is given.
14 e-Journal
In-text citation
Chen et al. (2014) suggest that these effects are difficult to quantify.
Chen, J., Chang, H., Chen, H.C. and Kim, S. (2014) ‘The effect of supply chain knowledge spill-overs on audit pricing’. Journal of Management Accounting Research. 26(1) pp.83-100 [Online] Available at: [ Accessed: 27 June, 2015].
15 Website Page – author known
In-text citation
Roberts (2014) charts the continued global predominance of LV in the luxury goods market. 
Roberts, A. (2014) Less Is More as Vuitton Stays Top Luxury Brand in Ranking. Bloomberg.  Available at: [Accessed: 27 June, 2015].
Note: The data comes from the Bloomberg website, but because the article author’s name is given, the data is referenced to the author, not the website.   
16 Organisation Website
In-text citation
The diversity of risk factors affecting CEOs today has placed risk management at the forefront of CEO concerns (Morgan Stanley, 2014).
Morgan Stanley (2014) Morgan Stanley Reports First Quarter 2014 [Online] Available at: [Accessed: 27 June, 2015].
Note: Morgan Stanley is the organisation’s name so ‘Morgan Stanley’ is the ‘corporate author’ and thereby responsible for the information, just like Toyota, L’Oreal, Tesco, Coca-Cola, McDonalds, etc. are the corporate authors of their own websites. However, check all copyrights; the frequently used is Crown copyright!
[Online] is used here as this is a report (instead of a webpage) and so is available in both hard and soft copies.
17 Multiple references to the same website
In-text citation
The University of Hertfordshire is ranked amongst the top 100 universities in the world under 50 years old (University of Hertfordshire, 2014a). The Knowledge Transfer team at the University has a distinguished track record in a range of partnerships with over 100 companies (University of Hertfordshire, 2014b). Research is carried out by three dedicated research institutes (University of Hertfordshire, 2014c): Health and Human Sciences Research Institute (HHSRI), Science and Technology Research Institute (STRI) and Social Sciences, Arts and Humanities Research Institute (SSAHRI).
University of Hertfordshire (2014a) About Us. Available at: [Accessed: 27 June, 2015].
University of Hertfordshire (2014b) Business Services. Available at: [Accessed: 27 June, 2015].
University of Hertfordshire (2014c) Research. Available at: [Accessed: 27 June, 2015].
18 Using an acronym to reference a website
In-text citation
The Financial Accounting Foundation (FAF) is responsible for the oversight, administration, and finances of both the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) and its counterpart for state and local government, the Governmental Accounting Standards Board (GASB). The Foundation is also responsible for selecting the members of both Boards and their respective Advisory Councils (FAF, 2014).
FAF (2014) Financial Accounting Foundation issues. 2013 Report [Online] Available at: [Accessed: 28 June, 2015]. 
Note: An ‘acronym’ is the short form of an organisation name. It can be used in the manner illustrated above – you must give the full form first, then the short form in brackets.  After that, the short form can be used.
19 Author citing another author in an electronic newspaper, magazine or newsletter
In-text citation
According to Humphrey (1966, cited in SRI, 2005), a useful analytical model for management consultancy is to separate issues in to 4 sections which he identified as strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT).
Humphrey, A. (1966) ‘SWOT Analysis for Management Consulting’. Cited in SRI (2005) SRI Alumni Association Newsletter December 2005.  Menlo Park, California: SRI [Online] Available at: [Accessed: 15 June, 2015].
20 Electronic Newspaper, Magazine or Newsletter – unspecified author
In-text citation
Germany’s seasonally-adjusted jobless total has jumped by almost 24,000 this month, the biggest rise in five years (The Guardian, 2014).
The Guardian (2014) Business live: Surprise rise in German unemployment. Guardian Business. 28 May, 2014. p.28. [Online] Available at: [Accessed: 28 June, 2015].
21 Bulletin Board
In-text citation
The UH Careers, Employment and Enterprise Service (CEE) weekly placement jobs bulletin shows a number of student employment services positions this month (University of Hertfordshire, 2014).
University of Hertfordshire (2014) Sandwich Year Placements (6 or 12 months). CareerHub. 4 October, 2014 [Online] Available at: [Accessed: 24 June, 2015]. 
22 Virtual Learning Environment (e.g. StudyNet)
In-text citation
CASE (2015) stresses the importance of good paragraph structuring using Bryant’s (1989) PEEEL technique.
CASE (2015) CASE Guide to Essay Writing [Online] Available at: [Accessed: 28 June, 2015].
23 Conference Proceedings – published on the Internet
In-text citation
Kromer et al. (2013) have stressed the growing industrial importance of ‘big data’. 
Kromer, P., Platos, J. and Snasel, V. (2013) Mining multi-class industrial data with evolutionary fuzzy rules.
2013 IEEE International Conference on Cybernetics (CYBCONF).13-15 June, 2013. Lausanne, Switzerland. IEEE Xplore. Available at: [Accessed: 29 June, 2015].
Note: For references to conference proceedings, include the date and location of the conference, plus the organisation (if available). In this example, IEEE Xplore is the organisation that published the proceedings.
24  DOI (Digital Object Indicator)
A DOI is a unique number that identifies individual digital (online) sources such as electronic journal articles. It replaces the URL in the reference as it is the permanent identifier for the data source, so no access date is needed.
In-text citation
Burkett (2008) refers to several significant articles relating to performance improvement myths, models and opportunities in her editorial.
Burkett, H. (2008) ‘Performance improvement myths, models, and opportunities’. Performance Improvement. 47(6) p.2. DOI: 10.1002/pfi.20001.
25 Online Image (e.g. each photo, drawing, graph, diagram, etc.)
When referring to images, they are considered as either ‘Tables’ or ‘Figures’ – not ‘photographs’, ‘pictures’, etc.
Figure 1: HBS students’ Graduation (University of Hertfordshire, 2014).
In-text citation
Figure 1 above (University of Hertfordshire, 2014) shows graduating HBS students at St Albans Cathedral. 
University of Hertfordshire (2014) Graduation photos. Available at: [Accessed: 29 May, 2014].
26 YouTube Video (uploaded by self)
In-text citation
According to Massey University (2010) your review should be brief but focused, showing your ability to synthesise a body of literature.
Massey University (2010) The Literature Review. YouTube. Uploaded: 17 May, 2010. Available at: [Accessed: 21 March, 2015].
Note: If the name of the presenter is not available, you will have to use the title of the item and the uploaded date at the beginning of the full reference in the reference list. It may also be difficult to find the actual name of the uploader since this is often a web-name.
27 YouTube Video (uploaded on behalf of someone else)
In-text citation
Henton (2012) stresses the importance of prior visualisation of ideal outcomes when dealing with difficult people.
Henton, D. (2012) Managing difficult situations – and people. 2012. New Zealand CIO Summit. YouTube. Uploaded by: Conferenz NZ Training. 4 April, 2012. Available at: [Accessed: 29 May, 2014].
28  iTunesU
In-text citation
Hyseni (2014) argues that understanding touch-points in a customer journey are essential in order to achieve a greater conversion rate.
Hyseni, H.  (2014) Understanding Customer Journey 2014. iTunesU. 14 February, 2014. Available at: [Accessed: 8 July, 2014].
29 Social Media Site (e.g. blog, wiki, internet forum, etc.)
In-text citation
Bennett (2014) blogs that under the Prudential Regulation Authority’s (PRA) new rules, foreign banks with UK branches will need to give the PRA detailed financial information so they can judge how dangerous it would be if they got into difficulties. This comes at a time when government ministers are trying to lure more financial institutions, particularly from China, to set up branches in London.
Bennett, A. (2014) ‘Bank Of England Could Kick Rogue Foreign Banks Out Of The City’. Huffington Post UK. 26 February, 2014. 12:19 pm. UK edn. Available at: [Accessed: 28 February, 2014]. 
Note: You may need to attribute an organisation to a blog, in addition to the blogger, as in the example above.
30 Social Networking Site (i.e. Twitter, Weibo, Tumblr, etc.)
In-text citation
Obama (2014) tweets that business leaders are starting to realise that America is a better place to invest and create jobs instead of China.
Obama, B. (2014) Barack Obama @BarackObama. Twitter. 29 January, 2014. 7:14pm. Available at: [Accessed: 28 February, 2014]. 
31 Facebook (Company or Group Page) 
In-text citation
IBM CEO, Rometty, in a speech to Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute graduates, states that: “Growth and comfort will never coexist” (IBM, 2014).
IBM (2014) IBM News. Facebook. 27 May, 2014. Available at:  [Accessed: 29 May, 2014].
Note: Personal Facebook pages are unlikely to be good reliable information sources and should not be used except to illustrate opinion on a topic. However, Company Facebook or group pages may be very useful for up-to-date information for your Industry Practice and Employability assignments.
32 LinkedIn   
Company or group links may be very useful for up-to-date information for your Industry Practice and Employability assignments.
In-text citation
Meeker presents 2014 Internet Trends: “Internet user growth now under 10% and slowing; fastest in China, India, Brazil, Indonesia” (KPCB, 2014).
KPCB (2014) KPCB Internet Trends 2014. LinkedIn. 28 May, 2014. Available at: [Accessed: 3 October, 2014].
Note: A quotation is used here but a page number cannot be included as none is available on an internet site.
Government and Legal sources
33 Government / EU Publication
In-text citation
The European Commission (2012) has made significant adjustments in policy precisely because of the threats that globalisation presents to free trade within the EU.
European Commission (2012) Globalisation and free trade. Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities.
34 UK Government Statute (in hard copy)
In-text citation
The Human Rights Act 1998 (Crown, 1998) aims to “give further effect” in UK law to the rights contained in the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, more commonly known as the European Convention on Human Rights. The Act makes it possible to address alleged breaches of a Convention right, without the need to go to the European Court of Human Rights in Strasbourg.
Crown (1998) Human Rights Act 1998. Chapter 42. (1998). London: The Stationery Office.
35 National Archives – Crown Copyright (Online)
In-text citation
‘Sensitive personal data’ means personal data consisting of information in eight areas (Crown, 2016).
Crown (2016) Data Protection Act 1998. Chapter 29 [Online] Available at: [Accessed: 20 March, 2016].
36  Legislation
In-text citation
EC Council regulations (2011) are very specific about this aspect of trade marking.
EC Council Regulation (2011) No. 40/94 of 20th January on the Community Trade Mark. Final. 
Note: The word ‘Final’ clarifies that this is not one of the earlier drafts.
37 Case Law
In-text citation
As a recent case shows (Courtney v Bryant, 2011) the principle of caveat emptor is interpreted differently across the EU. In many jurisdictions, there is no legal requirement for the vendor to provide a refund or exchange.
Courtney, M. v  Bryant, T. (2011) Case C-179/11. ECR 9-22.
Other Sources
38 No Author (Anon.) 
When a reference has no author listed and does not have an obvious corporate body responsible, then ‘Anon.’ (for anonymous) can be used, e.g. with ancient texts.
In-text citation
The book (Anon., 2011) clearly illustrates, season by season, just how effectively presidential campaigners plan, draft and articulate the political discourse that the press pretends it controls.
Anon. (2011) A Presidential Novel. New York: Simon and Schuster.
Note: Avoid using ‘Anon.’ as most modern texts have a traceable author. Search: do not give up too easily and use ‘Anon.’ because ‘anonymous’ data sources will be academically suspect because of the lack of information about the source.  Ask CASE for help if unsure.
 39 No Date (n.d.)
Often ‘in-house’ publications will not have a visible date. In these cases, you will have to use n.d.  Where there is a range of dates (e.g. 2010-2016) use the latest year shown.
In-text citation
According to the programme regulations (HKU, n.d.), the School may, in exceptional circumstances, admit an applicant who does not fulfil all of the criteria. 
HKU (n.d.) Advanced Diploma in Business Management. Regulations. Hong Kong: HKU Press.
Note: As with ‘Anon’, avoid using ‘no date’ (n.d.) where possible. With further research, you normally can find the date. With well-known corporate websites for example, you can assume that the date will be the current year of your access to the website. Ask a CASE adviser for help if you are unable to find a publication date.
40 Page numbers and chapters   
Page numbers and chapter numbers are normally not required for Harvard referencing when a citation accompanies a general description of a book or article, or when a book or article, as a whole, is being used to exemplify a particular point of view.
In-text citation
According to Jobber (2014:281), “the absence of segmentation is called undifferentiated marketing”.
Jobber, D. (2014) Principles and Practice of Marketing. 8th edn. Maidenhead: McGraw-Hill.
Note:  However, there are exceptions, and you should follow your lecturer’s personal preference in 2 and 3 below: 
1) Page numbers must be included in a citation that accompanies a specific quotation from a book or article. The page numbers follow the year of publication, preceded by a colon, as in the above example.
2) Page numbers might be required where you are expected to use one particular source extensively, for example a case study or a detailed critique of one article or chapter.
3) Page numbers and chapter numbers might be required in lengthy unindexed books, by multiple contributors.
41 Newspaper or Magazine Article – unspecified author (hard copy)
In-text citation
A recent influential editorial has expressed concerns about the UK housing market (The Sunday Times, 2015).
The Sunday Times (2015) Editorial. The Times Publishing Group. 25 June, 2015. p.10.
42 Newspaper or Magazine Article – specified author (hard copy)
In-text citation
A proposed marking boycott of UK University student work has been called off after members of the UCU union accepted a new pay offer from employers (Maguire, 2014).
Maguire, M. (2014) ‘University marking boycott cancelled with just days to spare’. Universe. UH Students’ Union. 9 May, 2014. p.4. 
43 Reference Material (e.g. dictionary, encyclopaedia) (hard copy)
In-text citation
A definition of a ‘subsidiary’ (Longman, 2015) stresses the element of complete control by another company. 
Longman (2015) Dictionary of Contemporary English. 25th edn. Harlow: Longman.
44 Corporate Author (hardcopy)
In-text citation
The role of government in promoting the development of SMEs is increasing in importance (Department of Industry, Science and Technology, 2015).
Department of Industry, Science and Technology (2015) Government support for SMEs [138756DTI] London: HMSO.
45 Lecture Notes (e.g. PowerPoint slides, lecture hand-outs)
It is not good practice to reference lecturers’ slides. Their lectures are designed to stimulate you to go to search and research more detailed academic sources, and primary sources where possible.
In-text citation 
Robins (2014) explains how regression analysis can be used to assess product promotion requirements.  
Robins, F. (2014) Quantitative Methods for Management: The MRR Report [4BUS1071. Quantitative Methods for Management. 20 March, 2014] Available at: [Accessed: 30 May, 2014].
46 Personal Email/Skype Communication
In-text citation 
According to Ucover’s CEO Green (2014), there have been important changes in the role of the external examiner in response to increased use of online teaching and learning developments.   
Green, C. (2014) Email to Dr Mike Courtney. 29 May, 2014.              OR
Green, C. (2014) Skype conversation with Dr Mike Courtney. 29 May, 2014.
Alternatively, a full entry in the final reference list for personal communications is not required for Harvard, so an in-text reference only will suffice. For example:
According to Ucover’s CEO Green (2014, email to the author 29 May, 2014), there have been important changes in the role of the external examiner in response to increased use of online teaching and learning developments.   
Note: Be consistent in whichever style you use.
47 Unpublished Research Interview
In-text citation 
According to interviewee B (2014), the brand was the most important consideration when purchasing chocolate.   
Interviewee B (2014) Unpublished research interview conducted by Rani, J. 29 May, 2014.
48 Podcast (e.g. iPlayer, Studynet site, iTunesU)
In-text citation
Big data has become the most powerful information source in global business (BBC, 2014).
BBC (2014) Big Data. Material World. Radio 4. Introduced by Quentin Cooper. 1 May, 2014. Available at: [Accessed: 10 May, 2014].
49 Research Report
In-text citation
A previous report (Mill, 2012) indicates the extent of subprime lending in the sector.
Mill, B. (2012) Subprime lending: redefining mortgages. Research Report 5489.  London: MS Intelligence Unit.
50 Full Conference Proceedings (hardcopy)
In-text citation
ISBA conference (2011) highlights the issue of the excessive UK regulatory environment as being of increasing concern.  
ISBA (2011) ‘SMEs: Small is no longer beautiful.’ Proceedings of the 33rd ISBA SME Policy and Research Conference. Brown, T. (ed.) University of Hertfordshire.13-14 May, 2011. Leeds: ISBA.
Note: ‘ISBA’ is the abbreviation of the organisation that published the conference proceedings. This is often (but not always) the same organisation as the conference organiser. If you have the name of a speaker, use this instead of the organisation.  As it is hard copy, it does not need [Online] ‘Available at’ and ‘Accessed (date)’.
In-text citation
Eckert (2011) explains how the notion of style is fundamental to copywriting in advertising.
Eckert, P. (2011) Messing with Style. CD-ROM Band 7. E301. ‘The Art of English. Everyday Creativity’. Milton Keynes: OU.
52 Film (e.g. DVD, Video film)
In-text citation
Following its success at the 81st Academy Awards, the film Slumdog Millionaire (Boyle and Tandan, 2008) topped the worldwide box office (barring North America), grossing $16 million from 34 markets in the week following the Academy Awards.
Boyle, D. and Tandan, L. (2008) Slumdog Millionaire.  Distributed by Fox Searchlight Pictures/Celador Films.
53 Referencing a Guest Speaker
In-text citation
According to Münter (2015) if there is more than one network, consumers must decide whether or not to enter a network, but also to which one, and expectations are central to the decision making.
Münter, M. (2015) Network Effects in Telecommunication Markets. Guest Lecture from HTW Saar, Germany. Hertfordshire Business School Europe Week 2015. 6 March, 2015.
54 Research Report
In-text citation
Evans (2015) identifies pension funding as a major constraint on research and development for small and medium sized enterprises.
Evans, P. J. (2015) Case studies of pension funding constraints in SMEs [SME/110234] Institute of Small Business Research.
55 In-house Publication (hard copy)
In-text citation
Bryant et al. (2014) emphasise that the main thing to remember about referencing is to use the correct order of information and to be consistent in the application of this information.
Bryant, T., McCauley, M. and Courtney, M. (2014) CASE Guide to Harvard Referencing. Hertfordshire Business School. Hatfield: UH.
56 Thesis / Dissertation
In-text citation
Scott (2013) indicates the reification of service strategy has often created the very conditions it was designed to alleviate.   
Scott, M. J. (2013) Input, output and interaction. Service philosophy in a global marketplace. Unpublished PhD thesis [HVN11225645] Hertfordshire Business School.
57 Translation (by a translator)
In-text citation
As Crowther and Martinez (2007) show that the struggle for centre ground in French politics seems to be a defining feature.
Crowther, M. and Martinez, H. (2007) The Struggle for France. Translated from French by C. Francis. London: Phoenix.
Note: It is acceptable to include a translation from other languages but the reference details should be in English.
58 Translation (by a student, e.g. Lucy Zhao)
In-text citation
A report from the Bank of China (2012) shows that the issue of bad loans at the time, was of great concern to the Chinese government.
Bank of China (2012) Quarterly Report. Document number BOC2398. April. Translated from Chinese by Lucy Zhao.
59 Encyclopaedia
In-text citation
Market segmentation can be defined as the process in marketing of dividing a market into distinct subsets (segments) that behave in the same way or have similar needs (Hitchen et al., 2010).
Hitchen, J. K., Kosser, P. and Freeman, R.D. (2010) ‘Marketing segmentation’. The New Business Encyclopaedia. Vol. 4. 12th revised edn. London: Macmillan.
If the encyclopaedia entry does not have an author, use the corporate author style:
Encyclopaedia Britannica (2015) ‘Marketing Segmentation’ [Online] Available at:
[Accessed: 9 June, 2015].
Note: Online collaborative encyclopaedias which do not attribute work to specific authors and are not refereed by subject specialists (e.g. Wikipedia) should not be used for academic references; although they may be useful as a general guide to a subject and may contain references to other more acceptable original sources. With the growth of these ‘collaborative’ encyclopaedia sources, there has been a slow acceptance of their general usage, but for academic work, they should not be used for references.
60 Exhibition Guide / Catalogue
In-text citation
As the preface reveals, The Tate Gallery (2015) has to take marketing more seriously now.  
Tate Gallery (2015) Baroque to Bauhaus: An architectural footprint. Exhibition Guide. 12 – 23 April, 2015. London: Tate Gallery.
61 Tables and Figures
Tables are anything organised in vertical/horizontal boxes.  Figures are graphs, photographs, diagrams, etc.
In-text citation
Table 1 below shows the current FTSE position:
Table 1: Current FTSE position (Data collected 11:30am on 30 May, 2014.)
FTSE100                      6858.31             -12.98
Biggest Risers (FTSE100)
Smith & Nephew PLC    1050.50             21.50
Admiral Group PLC       1452.00             24.00
Source: Moneyextra (2014)
Moneyextra (2014) FTSE 100. 30 May, 2014. Available at: [Accessed: 30 May, 2014].
Note: Provide a date in the References list when data may change on a regular basis, i.e. with exchange rates, shares, etc.
62 Television
In-text citation
As a recent Panorama programme (BBC, 2014) shows, the slave trade is far from over.
BBC (2014) A Modern Slave Trade. Panorama. BBC1. 8.00pm. 25 January, 2014.
63  Radio
In-text citation
The Director General of the CBI is apparently not confident that the skills gap can be closed (BBC, 2014).
BBC (2014) Business Today. BBC Radio 4. 8.00pm. 3 February, 2014.
64 Quotation
To avoid plagiarism use quotations carefully. Include the page numbers. Before you use a quotation, consider the following:
1)  Do not use a quotation if you can make the point in another way and paraphrase;
2)  Do not quote just to make up your word count;
3)  Do not use long quotes – these will not be included in word count.
Short quotations (e.g. 1-2 lines) should be enclosed in quotation marks and written
Courtney (2007:34) argues that “The language of business should not be characterised by ‘buzz phrases’ like ‘blue sky thinking’ and ‘thinking outside the box.” (Note the additional use of single inverted commas to indicate ‘jargon’ words).
Long quotations (generally discouraged) would be isolated and indented:
Courtney (2007:34) argues:
         “The language of business is excessively dependent on ‘buzz words’ like ‘blue sky thinking’ and ‘thinking outside
          the box’ which actually have the undesirable effect of encouraging a reliance on stereotypical and simplistic ideas.
          Anyone who signals that he or she is ‘thinking outside the box’ is almost invariably trapped inside it”.
Courtney, M. (2007) The Language of Business. Hong Kong: Macmillan China Ltd.
65 Quoting another student
In-text citation
The statistics supplied for the Business Report in part one of the project (Zhao, 2014) show Malaysia has the highest score for all of the five factors.    
Zhao, L. (2014) HBS MScIB Integrated Project Handout (1). Malaysia. Unpublished.
Note: You rarely need to quote or cite the work of other students (unless you are in a team producing joint work).
66 Work in other languages
In-text citation
The historical statistics (Hua, 1999) show the enormous geo-political influence of the floods.      
Hua, L. 華林甫 (1999) ‘Qingdai yilai Sanxia diqu shuihan zaihai de chubu yanjiu  清代以來三峽地區水旱災害的初步硏究’ [‘A preliminary study of floods and droughts in the Three Gorges region since the Qing dynasty’]. Zhongguo shehui kexue 中國社會科 [Social Sciences in China] 1. pp.168–79.
Note: An English translation should also be supplied in square brackets (as above), where possible.
An example of a final list of references
Notice the list is in alphabetical order, with a space between each reference.
Bennett, A. (2014) ‘Bank Of England Could Kick Rogue Foreign Banks Out Of The City’. Huffington Post UK. 26 February, 2014. 12:19 pm. UK edn. Available at: [Accessed: 28 February, 2014]. 
ISBA (2011) ‘SMEs: Small is no longer beautiful.’ Proceedings of the 33rd ISBA SME Policy and Research Conference. Brown, T. (ed.) University of Hertfordshire.13-14th May, 2011. Leeds: ISBA.
Javier, M., and Corcoran, G. (2005) ‘Management Accounting for Global Growth’. Financial Management. 12(2) pp. 18-26. Cited in Poole, A.M., and  Roose, W. (eds.) (2006) Journal of Business Finance and Accounting. 33(10) pp.140-143.
Jobber, D. (2014) Principles and Practice of Marketing. 8th edn. Maidenhead: McGraw-Hill.
KPSB (2014) KPCB Internet Trends 2014. LinkedIn. 28 May, 2014. Available at: [Accessed: 3 October, 2014].
Marx, K. (1867) Capital: A Critique of Political Economy. Vol. I. The Process of Capitalist Production. Abridged edn. McLellan, D. (2008) Oxford: OUP.
Mintel (2015) Smartphone and Tablet Gaming. Mintel. Available at: [Accessed: 25 June, 2015].
Mintzberg, H., Lampel, J., Quinn, J.B. and Ghoshal, S. (2003) The Strategy Process: Concepts, Contexts, Cases. 2nd European edn. Harlow: Pearson Education/Prentice Hall.
University of Hertfordshire (2014a) About us. Available at: [Accessed: 27 May, 2014].
University of Hertfordshire (2014b) Business Services. Available at: [Accessed: 27 May, 2014].
University of Hertfordshire (2014c) Research. Available at: [Accessed: 27 May, 2014].
How to put your list in alphabetical order using Microsoft Word®
Highlight all the References in your list, then click AZ↓. This will put your list in alphabetical order.
Endnote, Mendeley, etc.
There are ‘automatic’ referencing systems available, but CASE recommends that you do all your referencing without using these software aids, unless you are already very familiar with referencing formats, and you have many references to continually revise, as for a doctoral research project, for example.    
CASE are indebted to HBS teaching staff and Information Managers for their comments and suggestions. CASE consulted many UK University websites for Harvard style comparisons in the compilation of this guide, and also recommend the following publication for more detail on referencing systems:
Pears, R. and Shields, G. (2003) Cite Them Right: referencing made easy. Newcastle: Northumbria University. 
CASE hope this updated 2016 Harvard referencing guide helps you with all your assignment referencing requirements. Remember, as explained at the beginning of this guide, there are many small variations possible with Harvard referencing, so always follow this guide, or the style required by your tutor, but consult a CASE academic advisor for any outstanding issues. 
Test your Harvard referencing skills
Find ONE mistake in each reference in the list below:
Barro, R. J. (2008) Macroeconomics. 5th edn. Pearson: London.
BMA (2014) ‘The impact of obesity on UK health care funding’. British Medical Journal. 82(3). pp 13-16.
Derek Mahoney and Michael Cripps (2008) International business: a managerial perspective. 5th edn. Hong Kong: Macmillan.
FASB News Release. 11 January (2012). Available at: http// [Accessed: 14 January, 2012].
Javier, M., et al (2005) ‘Management accounting for global growth’. Financial Management. 12(2) pp. 18-26. Cited in Poole, A. M. and Roose, W. (eds.) (2006) Journal of Business and Financial Accounting. 33(10) pp.140-143.
Mintel (2014) Travel and Tourism – Venezuela. Available at:
O’Hara, M. (2007) ‘Making market microstructure matter’. Financial Management. 28(2).
R. Robbins, G. Bergmann, D. Stagg, and  E. Coulter. (2015) Management. Sydney: Prentice Hall.
Watson, M. (2015) Management accounting and budgetary control. Public Finance Quarterly. 32(2) pp. 234-237 [Online] Available at: [Accessed: 25 June, 2015].
Note: Use this guide to assist you to correct them and to check your corrections.

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